Chapter 1- The Nature of Life

 

Chapter 2- The Chemistry of Life

 

H2CO3                               CO2 + H2O

 

 Common Metric Units

  

  LENGTH                                                   MASS

 

                   1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm)                               1 kilogram (kg) = 1000 grams (g)

                        1 meter = 1000 millimeters (mm)                                    1 gram = 1000 milligrams (mg)

                        1000 meters = 1 kilometer (km)     

                         1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton (t)

    Volume                                                  TEMPERATURE        

 1 liter (L) = 1000 milliliters (mL)                                     0°C= freezing point of water

  1 liter = 1000 cubic centimeters (cm3)                             100°C= boiling point of water

 

          Chapter 7-Cells

 


 

Chapter 8- Photosynthesis

 

1.        H2O

2.        Carbon

3.        Light

4.        Chlorophyll

 


 

Chapter 9-Cellular Respiration

 

 


 

Chapter 10- Cell Growth and Division

 

·         What problems does growth cause for cells?

o        The larger a cell becomes, the more demands the cell places on its DNA and the more trouble the cell has moving enough nutrient and wastes across the cell membrane

·         Cell division is a process by which a cell divides into 2 new daughter cells

·         Surface area of a cell = (length x width x 6)

·         Volume of a cell = (length x width x height)

·         Ratio of surface area to volume = SA divided by V =?:?

·         Chromatids are one of two identical sister parts of a duplicated chromosome

·         Centromere is an area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

·         Interphase is the period of the cell cycle between cell divisions

·         What happens during the cell cycle?

o        A cell grows, prepares fro divisions, and divides to form 2 daughter cells each of which then begins the cycle again

·         How do biologist divide the events of mitosis?

o        They divide mitosis into 4 phases

1.        Prophase

2.        Metaphase

3.        Anaphase

4.        Telophase

·         Prophase is the 1st and longest stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus

·         Centrioles are one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope

·         Spindles are fanlike microtubules structures that help separate the chromosomes during mitosis

·         Metaphase is the 2nd phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell

·         Anaphase is the 3rd phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move towards opposite poles

·         Telophase is the 4th and final stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material

·         Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm during cell division

·         Cyclin is one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

·         Cancer is a disorder in which some of the body’s own cells lose the ability to control growth   

·         What happens with cancer in cells

o        Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells.  As a result, they form masses of cells called tumors that can damage the surrounding tissues

·         Promoters are the regions of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA

·         Introns are intervening sequences of DNA; does not code for a protein

·         Exons expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein

·         Codons are 3-nucleotide sequences on a mRNA that codes for a single amino acids

·         Translation is the decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain

o        During which, the cell uses info from mRNA to produce proteins

·         Anticodon is a group of 3 bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

·         Mutation is the change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic info 

·         What do gene mutations result from?

o        Results from changes in a single gene.  Chromosomal mutations involve changes in whole chromosomes

·         Point mutations are mutations that affect a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another

·         Frame-shift mutations are mutations that shift the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide

·         An operon is group of genes operating together

·         How are lac genes turned off?

o        They are turn off by repressors and turned on by the presence of lactose

·         An operator is a region of chromosome in a operon to which the repressor binds when is turned off

·         What is Eukaryotic Gene Regulation?

o        Most Eukaryotic genes are controlled individually and have regulatory sequences that are much more complex than those of the lac operon

·         Hox genes are a series of genes that control the organs and tissues that develop in various parts of an embryo

 

 


 

Chapter 12- DNA & RNA

 

·         Transformation is the process by which 1 strain of bacteria is changed by a gene from another strain of bacteria

·         What did Avery and other scientists discover?

o        They discovered that DNA is the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic info from 1 generation of an organism to the next

·         Bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria

·         What did Hershey and Chase conclude?

o        They concluded that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was DNA, not protein

·         Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids that are made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

·         What are Chargaff’s Rules?

o        A=T and G=C

o        Adenine = Thymine & Guanine = Cytosine

·         What did Watson & Crick discover?

o        They discovered that the model of DNA was a double-helix, in which 2 strands of DNA were would around each other

·         Base pairing is the principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and also between guanine and cytosine

·         Chromatin is a granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

·         Histone is a globular protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin

·         Replication is the copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA

·         What happens in DNA replication?

o        The DNA molecule separates into 2 strands

o        Then produces 2 new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing

o        Each strand of the double-helix of DNA serves as a template, or model, for the new strand

·         DNA polymerase is an enzyme that proofreads new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original

·         What are the 3 main types of RNA

o        Messenger RNA (mRNA)

o        Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

o        Transfer RNA (tRNA)

·         Messenger RNA is a RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino-acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell

·         Ribosomal RNA is a type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes

·         Transfer RNA is a type of RNA that transfers amino-acids to ribosomes during Protein Synthesis

·         Transcription is a process by which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA

·         RNA polymerase is an enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA & separates the DNA strands during transcription

·         What goes on during transcription?

o        During transcription, RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands.  RNA polymerase then uses 1 strand of DNA as template from which nucleotides are assembled into a new strand of RNA

·         What happens in cell transformation?

o        A cell takes in DNA from outside the cell.  This external DNA becomes a part of the cells DNA

·         A plasmid is a circular DNA molecule found in bacteria

·         A genetic marker is a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carries a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don’t

·         What happens if transformation is successful?

o        The recombinant DNA is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell

o        Recombinant technology is combining DNA from 2 or more species to make a product molecule.

   

Chapter 18- Classification and Chapter 19- Viruses

 

·         How are living things organized for study?

o        To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner

·         In taxonomy, scientists classify organisms and assign each organisms a universally accepted name

·         Binomial nomenclature is the classification system in which each species is assigned a 2-part scientific name

·         Genus is a group closely related species, first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature

·         Taxon is a group or level of organization into which organisms are classified

·         What is Linnaeus’s system?

o        Its uses 7 taxonomic categories.  Therefore, from smallest to largest; species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom

·         Family is a group genera that share many characteristics

·         Order is a group of similar families

·         Class is a group if similar orders

·         Phylum is a group of closely related classes

·         Kingdom is the largest taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla.

·         What is the 6-kingdom system of classification?

o        It includes the kingdoms Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

·         Domain is the most exclusive taxonomic category; layer than a kingdom

·         What are the 3 domains?

o        Bacteria, which corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria

o        Archaea, which corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria

o        Eukarya, which is composed of Protists, Fungi, plants and animals

·         Bacteria is the domain of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls contains peptideoglycan

·         Eubacteria kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptideoglycan

·         Archaebacteria kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes that have cells walls that don no contain peptideoglycan

·         Eukarya domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including Protists, Fungi, plants and animals

·         Protista- kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi

·         Fungi- kingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter

·         Plantae- multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose

·         Animalia- kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do not have cell walls

·         Prokaryotes- are single celled organisms that lack a nucleus

·         Viruses are particles made up of nucleic acid, and in some cases lipids, that can replicate only by inflecting living cells

o        A typical virus is composed of a core of either DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat

·         A Capsid is the outer protein coat of a virus

 

 

 

Chapter 35.1