APBChapter17-18-19 Unit Test Study Guide
1. Using RNA as a template for protein
synthesis instead of translating proteins directly from the DNA is
advantageous for the cell because
2. Be able to figure out what the mRNA strand would be if you know the amino acid sequence.
3. What is true for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression?
4. How does RNA polymerase differ from DNA polymerase?
5. Why is the promoter, called the TATA box,
highly conserved in evolution. Which might this illustrate?
6. A transcription unit that is 9,000
nucleotides long may use 1,500 nucleotides to make a protein consisting
of approximately 500 amino acids. What might that indicate?
7. Why are introns are significant to biological evolution?
8. What is alternative RNA splicing and why is it important?
9. A particular triplet of bases in the coding
sequence of DNA is TTT. The anticodon on the tRNA that binds the mRNA
codon would be___?
in the translation of mRNA into the primary structure of a polypeptide
depends on specificity in the _______?
11. Know the structure of a tRNA, what does each part do?
12. There are 61 mRNA codons that specify an
amino acid, but only 45 tRNAs. This is best explained by the fact that
13. A mutation in
which section of DNA could influence the binding of RNA polymerase to
14. Transcription of the structural genes in an inducible operon starts when _____?
15. If you were to observe the activity of methylated DNA, you would expect it to do what?
16. Genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, and histone acetylation are all examples of what?
17. Two potential devices that eukaryotic cells
use to regulate transcription are ___ & ____.
18. Steroid hormones produce their effects in cells by….?
19. Gene expression might be altered at the
level of post-transcriptional processing in eukaryotes rather than
prokaryotes because of ________?
20. What is siRNA, what does it do?
21. What are proto-oncogenes, what is their function?
22. The incidence of cancer increases dramatically in older humans because ______ ?
23. Why are viruses referred to as obligate parasites?
24. What are the characteristics of the lytic cycle?
25. Most molecular biologists think that
viruses originated from fragments of cellular nucleic acid. Which
observations support this theory?
26. What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses?
27. What are prions?
28. How can the flu virus moves between species?
29. What would be the most probable fate of a
newly emerging virus that causes high mortality in its host?
31. Central Dogma or protein synthesis for
eukaryotes can be simplified to DNA is transcribed into RNA, RNA is
translated into protein. In a brief paragraph explain what this
are “non-living” organisms. Why? Is there any evidence that they are
“degenerative” organisms? What do they have in common with living
organisms? How are viruses unique?