APBChapter17-18-19 Unit Test Study Guide

    1.    Using RNA as a template for protein synthesis instead of translating proteins directly from the DNA is advantageous for the cell because
    2.    Be able to figure out what the mRNA strand would be if you know the amino acid sequence.
    3.    What is true for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression?
    4.    How does RNA polymerase differ from DNA polymerase?
    5.    Why is the promoter, called the TATA box, highly conserved in evolution. Which might this illustrate?
    6.    A transcription unit that is 9,000 nucleotides long may use 1,500 nucleotides to make a protein consisting of approximately 500 amino acids. What might that indicate?
    7.    Why are introns are significant to biological evolution?
    8.    What is alternative RNA splicing and why is it important?
    9.    A particular triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is TTT. The anticodon on the tRNA that binds the mRNA codon would be___?
    10.    Accuracy in the translation of mRNA into the primary structure of a polypeptide depends on specificity in the _______?
    11.    Know the structure of a tRNA, what does each part do?
    12.    There are 61 mRNA codons that specify an amino acid, but only 45 tRNAs. This is best explained by the fact that ____________?
    13.    A mutation in which section of DNA could influence the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA:
    14.    Transcription of the structural genes in an inducible operon starts when _____?
    15.    If you were to observe the activity of methylated DNA, you would expect it to do what?
    16.    Genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, and histone acetylation are all examples of what?
    17.    Two potential devices that eukaryotic cells use to regulate transcription are  ___ & ____.
    18.    Steroid hormones produce their effects in cells by….?
    19.    Gene expression might be altered at the level of post-transcriptional processing in eukaryotes rather than prokaryotes because of ________?
    20.    What is siRNA, what does it do?
    21.    What are proto-oncogenes, what is their function?
    22.    The incidence of cancer increases dramatically in older humans because  ______ ?
    23.    Why are viruses referred to as obligate parasites?
    24.    What are the characteristics of the lytic cycle?
    25.    Most molecular biologists think that viruses originated from fragments of cellular nucleic acid. Which observations support this theory?
    26.    What is the function of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses?
    27.    What are prions?
    28.    How can the flu virus moves between species?
    29.    What would be the most probable fate of a newly emerging virus that causes high mortality in its host?
    31.    Central Dogma or protein synthesis for eukaryotes can be simplified to DNA is transcribed into RNA, RNA is translated into protein. In a brief paragraph explain what this statement means?

   32.    Viruses are “non-living” organisms. Why? Is there any evidence that they are “degenerative” organisms?  What do they have in common with living organisms? How are viruses unique?