Chapter 16, 20, 21 Review Guide

Chargaff’s rules (base-pairing rules)
Structure of DNA, purpose of histones
Purposes of the enzymes of DNA replication, what is required for replication
The differences between the leading and lagging strands during DNA replication
Know the complimentary base pair rules to make a mRNA or primer from a DNA template
What is a telomere? What does telomerase do?
Meselson Stahl, Hershey Chase experiment
How to insert a gene into a plasmid, how restriction enzymes work
Why use model organisms (worms,flies,bacteria) for studying genomes instead of human only.

What is the purpose of gene therapy? Why haven't we figured out how to do it well?
How Dolly the sheep was cloned.
How genetic engineering is used by the pharmaceutical industry.
How DNA fragments run in an electrophoresis gel (the order in which they sort).
Use a electrophoresis gel to tell the relationships between individuals  (paternity, crime, etc).
What is bioinformatics, what is sequencing good for?

Is there a relationship between the size of an organism and it's genome size?

What are pseudogenes and what are they good for?
Looking at the chromosomes of different animals, why are the genes in different locations?
Where are restriction enzymes found? What is the “natural” purpose of restriction enzymes? How do restriction enzymes work?

How can you assemble a plasmid using a restriction enzyme that makes a sticky end cut?

How does recombinant DNA work? (Example, E. coli and pGlo) Why do scientists use antibiotic genes in combination with the gene of interest (glowing jellyfish gene)?

Transgenic plants be used to create human proteins, are there any potential issues with using transgenic organisms?

What is the difference between metacentric and acrocentric chomosomes?

What are Alu elements? Where are they found?
What types of evidence and HOW did that evidence help Watson and Crick deduce the structure of DNA?
What is the relationship and purpose of homeotic genes and homeobox sequence?
What are the various ways that chromosomes exchange blocks of DNA?

What are the relationships between the following word pairs (explain any technology, application and implications for humans).

a) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Alu inserts

b) Bioinformatics and either the Genome, Proteome, Metabolome

c) Cloning and Stem Cells

d) RNAi and Gene Control