AP Biology Curriculum Framework Correlation:

Short Cuts: Big Idea 1, Big Idea 2, Big Idea 3, Big Idea 4

Basic Science Practices & Statistics

Lab Ideas

Activity Ideas

Supporting Podcasts, Articles, and Videos

Computer Modeling and Simulations

M&M statistics lab Data for M&M by color (google formresults) Statistics Data day doing day 2 skittles

Example AP Biology Lab Write ups Example 1  Example 2

ADI general rubric 

Making a mini poster

Rubric General Lab Rubric Power Conclusion

absent on lab day requirements

 Vernier Lab Pro Instructions

Mini-Posters and Gallery Walks

Introduction to Big Ideas & Organizing Concepts

Rocks, Ponds, and Boats

How to Write in Biology PPT

Statistics PPT (xp version) Updated: Why do we bother with statistics in biology? Accepting Defeat (experimental defeat)

After the AP Exam:

"AP biology photo scavenger hunt"

AP Project

Post AP Exam Project Rubric

List of links to research journals online (some links might be out of date)

a. Nature News:

b. Science Magazine News:

c. National Geographic News:

d. Scientific American News:

e. Discover Magazine News:


Statistics Skills and AP labs

Statistics Explained

Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity & unity of life

Learning Objectives

Lab Ideas

Activity Ideas

Supporting Podcasts, Articles, and Videos

Computer Modeling and Simulations

Evolution Learning Objectives

Biochemistry & Metabolism & Enzymes Learning Objectives (Enzymes also in Big Idea 2 & 4)


1) Actual Lab for Hardy-Weinberg (write-up binder paper notes + typed discussion due 2/13 see last page of lab) (link to computer program A1 you will need this on your own computer to complete the lab at home) read through introduction forPPT and other  and sampleand more advanced modelingDeme 1.0 & 2.0 (need free account) or Allele A1 orPopGen Allele A1(download and use with the following pdf files:AlleleAI ManualTutorial I Selection/MutationTutorial 2 Migration/Drift

2) EvoDots (download and use online manual, located under "help".)

3) New Investigation #2: Hardy Weinberg (background info) Hardy Weinberg Help

Darwin and Hardy-Weinberg


1) Updated Phylogenetics Activity (how to read a phylogenetic treerubric Using use the one click on the http://www.phylogeny.fr/ site with cast from Mr. Knuffke on an example of how to do the project using phylogeny.fr).

2) Bioinformatics: New Lab 2:Blast and beyond

3) Introduction to protein gels  (info on SDS/PAGE gels; protein analysis) Fish  Protein Glossary

Protein Fish Lab Quick Guide

Post Lab Analysis HelpHBB FASTA list Complete Student Manual Fish lab: Lab write up Assign Fish Protein lab , see rubric for detail: must include and labeled picture of gel. Fish RUBRIC HBB FASTA list blog rubric Dry Lab Data How to do linear regression on calculator cladogram sectionPost Lab Analysis Help references) Fish RUBRIC (post on Blog rubric, turn in personal How to write a reflection typed)

Diversity of Life:

Designing Inquiry type labs

Oh the things people can do with slime mold Slime mold Blog post for partners (1 post per pair) includes: Descriptive titles, procedural design and Observations; anecdotal, measurements (you might consider Image J (including drawings or time lapse video; free apps Splice for iPhone; Magisto for Android) and How to write a reflection conclusion, references and 2 comments on other posts (slime mold blog grading rubric)

Origin of Life:

Origin of Life Activity background on Origin of Life Origin of Life Investigation(Carolina) demo

TED Talk: Life vs Non-life

Viruses may have been the precursors of life the Mimi Virus
Carl Zimmer on NPR "Planet of Viruses"

First Life


Case Study: PKU & Hardy-Weinberg

CER: Host-Parasite Articles in class, post to blog

HHMI: Shells

HHMI: Natural Selection & Adaptation (pocket mice) short video

HHMI: Birth & Death of Genes

HHMI: Natural Selection in Humans


1) Learning Evolution Using Phylogenetic Analysis (PPTX)Student Worksheet (DOCX) Data sets for Phylogenetic Analysis AminoAcidsB1AminoAcidsPartB2 PartC Part D

Using use the one click on the http://www.phylogeny.fr/ site with cast from Mr. Knuffke on an example of how to do the project using phylogeny.fr).

  1. Case Study: Evolution of Skin Color or Case Study: Tree Thinking/Whale Evolution or Case Study: Fly Speciation

Human Evolution:

Human Evolution PPT

Comparing Primate Skeletons New Homind Species Red Deer Cave People?

Primates & Humans: War Archives: How Some Primates Fought Off Ancient Viruses
Which human genes have been hotspots for positive selection? World's Oldest Cave Art Evolution of Man and moreEvolution of Man(Smithsonian) Evolution of Skin Color (TED talk) Back to Africa 12,000 years ago article -2012

Brain Gene Duplications may have lead to Human Traits

Science Article on altered sex ratios (ask for article)

Neanderthals ate their veggies and used medicinal plants


Protists and other odds

TED talk what is left to explore?

Absolutely GREAT overview of Eukarya

Tree of Life

Misconceptions about Evolution List

Bozeman Origin of Life

Crash Course: History of Life

Mars and alternate idea

Panspermia from Origins

RNA and the Origin Life HHMI Lecture (13-15)

Evolution of Life (little stories)

TED Talk: Life vs Non-life


Chemical Basis to Life     &Chemistry of Life & Evolution (for those who love chemistry)

The Legacy of Lonesome George

Tree of Life

Why is the Y chromosome so small now?

HHMI X inactivation

Sequence Analysis Info

Cladistics Teacher Guide

Evolution "Gems" from Nature Magazine

Cladistics Student Guide

Your Inner Fish articles:

A Devonian tetrapod-like fish and the evolution of the tetrapod body plan

The pectoral fin of Tiktaalik roseae and the origin of the tetrapod limb

Oldest footprint on terrestrial Earth  (Extra Credit Article see me for copy)

These fins were made for fingers? News articleOriginal Research Article(suitable for March required article)

Gene Swapping drives Evolution in Prokaryotes

Biased Gene Conversion (may be responsible for accelerated evolution)  Extra Credit Articles Review due 2/12

HHMI: How the Stickleback fish lost spines in the fresh water populations (genes) Original Article

Cichlid Fish Evolution article Rapid sympatric ecological differentiation of crater lake cichlid fishes within historic times

Fly Evolution: 40 generations and they can count

Animal Tree of Life (updated)

How to make a Cladogram

 Eye Evolution Article

Is there a limit to brain evolution and intelligence?

Evolutionary Evidence that birds descended from dinosaurs

Dinosaur skulls, heterochrony and birds

Cyanobacteria Switch Metabolism at Night

The Straight Poop: a novel approach to curing digestive disease

You won't believe how much bacteria is in your living environment

Bacterial Evolution (diarrhea) TED talks

Cool video on nemerteans and echinoderms

Cnidarians Triploblastic, really

Embryos sensing light, yeah really

Sea Jellies may have been bilaterians back in the day

Phylip (free program for determining phylogeny)

Using use the one click on the http://www.phylogeny.fr/ site with cast from Mr. Knuffke on an example of how to do the project using phylogeny.fr).

Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow to reproduce and maintain dynamic homeostasis.

Learning Objectives

Lab Ideas

Activity Ideas

Supporting Podcasts, Articles, and Videos

Computer Modeling and Simulations

Biochemistry & Metabolism & Enzymes Learning Objectives (Enzymes also in Big Idea 1 & 4)

Cell Learning Objectives

Metabolism II (Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis) learning objectives

Body Systems Learning Objectives (Nervous System, Immune, Endocrine also found in Big Idea 3)

Cell Math:

Size and Shape of Cells Activity 

Membranes & Transport:

New Osmosis & Diffusion Investigation #4  lab Lab 4 Osmosis Diffusion: AP Lab measurements/ Results/ Calc. (help with calculations: notes on water potential)

Lab Write-up ( lab)  Osmosis & Diffusion lab General Rubric for Student designed labsPower Conclusion

Free Energy Labs:

CB Investigation #6 Cellular Respiration,

Change ups: different types of seeds, different temperatures

AP Lab 4 also New Investigation #5:Photosynthesisprocedures PPT of Lab-investigation Changing up the experiment... wavelengths, different colored lights, distance to light, other plants besides spinach Using the Inverse Law (for light and distance)

Introduction to Transpiration

TED TALK: Plant intelligence HHMI: Popped Corn origin of corn (17 min) Pre lab New Investigation 11: Transpiration Measuring Surface area of leaves How to use Image J to measure surface area (youtube) Download Image J program

Written Instructions for using Image J (pdf)

How can you measure transpiration in a bean plant... think of ways to measure. AP Lab 9/New Investigation 11: Transpiration Results/ Semi-Formal Title, Abstract, Results (summary table, summary graph, trend paragraph relate to stomata density), conclusion and references.  RUBRIC AP Lab 9 help)

Membranes & Transport:

Virtual AP Lab 1

Water Potential Worksheets for additional help and practice

worksheet 1

worksheet 2

worksheet 3

Q10 calculator with explanation of interpreting Q10

Digital Plant Scavenger Hunt


Video: From Butterflies to Humans HHMI Lecture (lecture 4 online)

Endocrine Signaling:

Case Study: Boy or Girl with Nature Article  ;NPRPodcast Why are more boys born?  PNAS article 

Case Study: Graves Disease

Fat cells & Hormones (gene regulation) HHMI

Fat & Hormone Lecture HHMI

Immune System Homeostasis:

Immune System Building Antibodies:

Exploring Antibodies

Visualing Antibodies

Model Instructions

Activity Questions

Close Reading: The mealybug suppresses plant defense responses... Plant immune system

Case Study: HIV

Case Study: 1918 Flu

Case Study:Influenza Pandemic

Case Study: Donor's Dilemma

 HIV Life Cycle Animation HHMI

Immune PresentationImmune overview T-cell Article

H1N1 Evolution from bird to human

Tongue Bugs

Mice Harm their own RBC to protect against malaria (news brief)  (full article) 

Parasite turns evades host immune response

What you understand about bond formation is probable WRONG... read this. (and it is your biology teacher's fault, mea culpa)

Understanding Endergonic and Exergonic Reactions Chemical Energy Tutorial Worksheet

 Water a polar molecule    Molecules of LifeBiological Molecules (Essentials #42

TED Talk (animates a cell)

Cellular Membranes (AP Essentials #15)
The Cell Membrane
  Transport across membranes(AP Essentials #16)
Osmosis Lab Walkthrough
Diffusion Demo

Nobel Prize 2013 in Physiology/Medicine Vesicle Movement  & more details

Homeostasis and Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide in the Blood, Bohr Shift and Oxygen Dissociation (YouTube)

What is Bond Energy, Free Energy?

Energy Balance Sheet for Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis

(for fun q10 diatribe)

Interesting Confounding factor: Green seeds can photosynthesis

Autotrophic Carbon Fixation 1st (2010) Woesean ViewEvidence Explained Fixing Carbon Dioxide First? First Explained (1990) Origin of Cells & Metabolism – proposed 2003 (Origin of Biochemistry 2007)

Evolution of Plants

New class of Plants Hormones found

Diversity of Plants

Interactive Animations: Cell Transport

Great Animation of Cellular Respiration

Interactive Introduction to Photosynthesis (requires Java)(go to browse all activities, select Biology harvesting light)

Interactive Animations of Photosynthesis

Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes

Learning Objectives

Lab Ideas

Activity Ideas

Supporting Podcasts, Articles, and Videos

Computer Modeling and Simulations

Cell Communication & Cell Cycle and Mitosis Learning Objectives

DNA/RNA, Biotechnology, Viruses learning objectives

Genetics Learning Objectives

Body Systems Learning Objectives (Nervous System, Endocrine & Immune found under Big Idea 2 also)

Cell Communication:

Cell Signaling Group Project (Infogram (sign up for a free account) Easel.ly (sign up for an account)

Slime mold Descriptive titles, procedural design and Observations; anecdotal, measurements (including drawings) and How to write a reflection conclusion, references due (slime mold blog grading rubric

Modeling neurotransmission activity Educreations (peer rubric) Link to cool illustrations and animations

New discoveries about Autism Brain, Handedness & Schizophrenia (article)

Cell Cycle & Mitosis:

New Investigation #7A Mitosis Additional Lab InformationSample Data roots treated with caffeine and alternate dye instructions Write up Rubric


PV92 Student Manual (all the info) Intro to PCR animation PCR Animation 2 Genetic Origins Background Article on PV92 and Evolution Pseudogenes Alu article (extra credit article)

pGlo: Investigation #8; introduction
Virtual AP Lab 6 Site

Inquiry Extension to Bacterial Transformation Lac Operon Interactive Animation from Gene Machine LUX operon from HHMI animation Bacterial Operons &Bacterial Gene Control


Sordaria Pictures Sordaria Practice New Investigation 7B Meiosis Meiosis Rubric due 2/4


corn activity Pericarp and Transposons Corn Genetics Background Information Article

flies Drosophilia Background info Fly Epigenetics Lab (fly manualFly Epigenetics Lab (set up (scheme) epigenetics & diet Fly posters and data... Write up: Mini-Posters for flies; personal typed How to write a reflection of your project... presentation on Thursday (peer review rubric, just in case you lose the copy I gave you) (teacher rubric) Speaking and Listening Guidelines

Statistic Modeling Probability

Cell Communication:

TED Talk: Genes (DAF-2 & FOXO) and Life Span

TED talk (How Bacteria Communicate) HHMI: Quorum Sensingand TED Talk: Bonnie Bessler/ Bacteria & Quorum Sensing

and more from Bonnie Bessler from HHMI

Plant signaling, for real

Case Study: Silencing the Hedgehog

HHMI: p53 gene and Cancer

Case Study: Diabetes and Insulin Signaling

Case Study: My Dog is Broken

Video: From Butterflies to Humans HHMI Lecture (lecture 4 online)

Nervous System:

 General Animation of neurotransmission

HHMI: Neurons & Synapses

Click & Learn Neuronal Activity HHMI

Articles: What is Memory?

Blocking Neurons HHMI(cabal acts like a taser)

Cephalopod intelligence and camouflage video Hive minds

and Slime Mold Intelligence

Case Study Escape from Planet Soma

microRNA can turn somatic cells into neurons

Genes and Alzheimer's

Very cool pictures of neurons from Clarity technique (Brains as clear as jello)

Poison Dart Frogs: Neurotoxins

HHMI: Lecture on Neurons and Brain Development

Narwhal tusk...interesting uses (article)

DNA/RNA/Gene Control/ Biotechnology

CER Activity: Jumping Genes & Schizophrenia

Case study: GMO and RNAi: Snow White Apples

Gene Regulation Worksheet in class(Word version) Regulation  vs (prokaryotic regulation)

Restriction AnalysisInvestigation #9 dry lab-Investigation Restriction Mapping Lab  

Data for Restriction Mapping Dry Lab Semi-log Graph help CarolinaBiological Practice Restriction Mapping Problem Gene Mapping Problem

Mapping Problems

BioRad Restriction Mapping Practice #1

BioRad Restriction Mapping Practice #2

Restriction Mapping Lab (dry lab)

Helpful background info

gene expression/ CRISPR

Animation of how signal molecules help regulate transcription of proteins (HHMI)

Drugs and Epigenetics activity

Virophages: Viruses that can infect other viruses Mimi and Mama viruses and viruses that infect parasites passed on

Search for Emerging Viruses (TED talk)

Humorous NPR animation of viral infections

HHMI: Stem Cells & Regeneration & Development

Ghost in Your Genes(external gene expression)

HHMI: How Gene Switches Work

HHMI: Gene Switches and Fly Wing Decorations

HHMI: Birth & Death of Genes

HHMI: Natural Selection in Humans

Lecture 4: From Butterflies to Humans (gene switches)

Plant Genome Gone Wild Reading

Gene Regulation Worksheet in class (Word version)

HHMI: How do cells know what to do (cytoplasmic factors)

HHMI: Stem Cells & Regeneration & Development

HHMI: Animation: How to get stem cells

Octopus uses RNA editing to change protein to cope with frigid temperatures 

Search for Emerging Viruses (TED talk)


Karyotyping Background info for Part A  (click through the 3 pages) ; Karyotyping Activity 

Good Place to practice genetics problems Whiteboard problems

Classwork problems Human Genetics Problem Set

Sex-linked 1, and 2 DNA Forensics I

DNA Forensics II The Romanovs

Drugs and Epigenetics
Jumping Genes and MRSA infections Epigenetics and Plasmodium (Malaria) article from 2010

Case Study: Pretzel Syndrome,Introduction PPT Worksheet (html link)

Cell Signaling between organisms: Springtails help moss in fertilization (article)

Plant Behavior: Allelopathic Plants (plants blocking growth of other plants)

Cancer and Stem Cells  Cancer Vaccines

Role of Topoisomerase in DNA Replication

Topoisomerase (fixing a knotty problem) YouTube

Topoisomerases and Playdoh YouTube

Animation: How Alu jumps in the genome

Scitable from Nature: Cancer
&  Introduction to Biotechnology Bacterial Operons Bacterial Gene Control Gene Mapping &Essentials of Genetics Unit 4(Manipulating DNA)
Prezi Presentations: Biotechnology
Genomics 101 (TED talk)
DNA Anatomy
YouTube DNA Replication Songto backstreetboys
DNA Replication

TED Talk: James Watson: How we discovered DNA

Sperm Genome (July 2012) Lots of recombination and boo-boos

Genomic Structure rather than Mutations may explain Differences in Individuals

First Gene Therapy Glybera may be approved (7-2012) inEU

TED Talk: Welcome to the Genome Revolution

Funny YouTube from Bio-Rad GTCA to YMCA

Regulation and Timing in Development(AP Essentials #24)

Molecular Biology of the Gene(DNA Structure) DNA Replication

Homeostasis Hugs
Cellular Specialization(Development) )Essentials #44)

Central Dogma: Transcription
Central Dogma: Transcription and Translation(Chapter 10)

 DNA & RNA Part I (history) (Biology Essentials #27 A)
DNA & RNA Part II(structure)(Biology Essentials #27 B)

Gene Control  (Chapter 11) RNAi Nature
  & Gene Regulation  (AP Essentials #31)
Signal Transmision and Gene Expression (AP Essentials #32)
From Gene to Protein: Chapter 17
 Scitable from Nature:
Essentials of Cell Biology Unit 2
 &   Central Dogma &Eukaryotic Gene Control

DNA Super Coils Hopping along-Gene Regulation with video so cool

Reprogramming Urine cells into neural cells (original)

ENCODE Background

pre-mRNA splicing Alternate Splicing Article

Hot Topic: RNAi silencing expression

Why is DNA the main nucleic acid for information storage instead of RNA?

Violation of Central Dogma???? Non-ribosomal peptide synthesis

Active RNA Polymerases: Mobile or Immobile Molecular Machines?

Cystic Fibrosis Gene Defect Article

Pseudogenes no longer vestigial?Origins of Gene Regulation (2010) good extra credit article review The Role of NucleosomePositioning in the Evolution of Gene Regulation

microRNAs from food controling our genes

Tweaking a Gene Makes it Stronger

Fruit fly intestines and the secret of longevity

Time to wake up

PBS: RNAi explained

HHMI: RNAi tutorial

Long Coding RNA and HOTAIR another type of regulation

Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and viroids

Preview of Genetics
Mitosis and Meiosis Simulation    
Mendelian Genetics (Biology Essentials #29)
Punnett Squares
Using the addition and multiplication rules to solve genetics problems

Genotypes & Phenotypes(AP Essentials #33)
Linked Genes
  and Chromosomal Inheritance (Chapter 9 B)
Pedigree Analysis
Advanced Non-Mendelian Genetics  (AP Essentials #30)
Cellular Variation(Essentials #52)
Environmental Genotype Effects (Essentials #53)

Mendel was totally lucky he didn't see linked genes

Okay here is the murky truth about heterozygotic inheritance (complete, incomplete, and codominant)

Time Magazine article on epigenetics
Jumping Genes Reveal Kangaroos' Origins (2010)
Dosage Compensation in the Mouse Balances Up-Regulation and Silencing of X-Linked Genes
Epigenetics- the next level of gene control outside of inherited DNA sequences (Article from NEB-2010)
Transposon silencing

Prezi Presentations: Mendelian Genetics
Prezi: Mendel Part I
Prezi: Extension to Mendelian Genetics
Prezi: Human Genetic Conditions

What is non-nuclear inheritance???

Why is the Y chromosome so small now?

HHMI X inactivation

Sperm Genome (July 2012) Lots of recombination and boo-boos

Myths of Genetic Traits

Rare Blood Type Vel-1 (extra credit article)

Epistasis,Pleiotrophy  and Epigenetics,Epigenetics News

Jumping Genes in Plants horizontal transfer article

Interactive Animations Cell Signaling

Onion Root Tutorial

Interactive Animation of Restriction Digest and Elecrophoresis

Interactive Animations DNA Replication

Interactive Animation Protein Synthesis Transcription Animation DNALC

Translation Animation DNALC

How a mutation alters protein structure (Sickle Cell Anemia) animation HHMI

Visualizing Gene Expression HHMI, slideshow

All the different types of RNA & Ribozymes HHMI slideshow & animations

Retroviruses are in control ofdevelopment "We are viral fromthe beginning" Stem Cell Potency and Retroviruses From Gene to Protein Animation (Cell Function Overview) ProteinTransport MovieTranscription andTranslation

HOX genes HHMI lecture

HIV Life Cycle Animation HHMI

How AZT can block HIV reverse transcriptase HHMI

Protease Inhibits HIV from maturing HHMI

Transposon animation


Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties

Learning Objectives

Lab Ideas

Activity Ideas

Supporting Podcasts, Articles, and Videos

Computer Modeling and Simulations

Ecology Learning Objectives

Biochemistry & Metabolism & Enzymes Learning Objectives

Complex Interactions/Free Energy-related:

HHMI: Exploring Biomass Pyramids with Data Activity

Energy Dynamics Lab 10 Student VersionCarolina Version Biomass activity with grass seed Life Cycle of Brassica Butterflies(youtube)

Everything to know about raising Brassica Butterflies (pdf)

How to use Image J to measure surface area (youtube)

Download Image J program

Written Instructions for using Image J (pdf)

Population Ecology & Behavior:

Pop. Ecology  Population Growth Activity: (bring a graphing calculator if possible)(New Population Activity this is really really good as a review for chapter 53 skills on logistic & exponential growth) How to do a  student-t test Statistics PPT (xp version)

Dissolved Oxygen (using DO bottles) see old AP Lab 12

Complex Molecules Interactions/ Chemistry & Enzymes:

Inquiry Lab CB Enzyme #13: or  New New Enzyme Lab with Catalase due (All parts of the lab see rubrichttp://goo.gl/RVBfbD (but the power conclusion with references) goes on theBlogger account as a group effort-put your name on the parts you completed.... your power conclusion/ reflection/references is individual) Enter data on thespreadsheet (you will need to log in to your school google drive account) each group has a separate sheet (look on the bottom to select your number)

Population Ecology & Behavior:

Cool way of doing a lab report “infographic lab report” (on fruit fly behavior and personality- (note: the above link can only be viewed from home, school blocks i.imgur links) from published article

Population Equations, modeling population growth (Excel) Practice Calculations

Ants, Parasitic Fungi, and Streptomyces (coevolution and mutualism) Fungi Life Styles/ Video (The Rotten World) Flesh Eating Fungi(Cordyceps mind controlling fungi-YouTube) 6 ways fungi can save the world (TED talk)

Complex Molecules Interactions/ Chemistry & Enzymes:

What is Bond Energy, Free Energy?

So you don't understand bond energy, thermodynamics and Gibbs Free Energy...here's a tutorial to help

Explanation of Gibbs Free Energy or Gibbs Function

Alternate enzyme lab-investigation
Toothpickase Demo 
Understanding Endergonic and Exergonic Reactions Chemical Energy Tutorial Worksheet

Behaviorand Behavior and Natural Selection

Ecology & Homeostasis Introduction 

Abiotic and Biotic Factors     &Exchanging Materials with the Environment    Population Ecology   &Communities and Ecosystems Homeostatic Disruptions Response to External Environments

Selfish Sheep: Predation & Herding behavior (research article)

Plant Behavior: Allelopathic Plants (plants blocking growth of other plants)

Population Growth and Vulcans

Ants as military strategists

Whale Behavior: Blowing Bubbles
Now you see the octopus Now you don't
Bioluminescence in the deep ocean

Welcome to the Anthropocene

What if Life: Radio Version

Narwhal tusk...interesting uses(article)

Firestorms and Climate Change

Dumping Iron into Oceans to Capture Carbon

Acidification messing with a fish's mind (going Dory)


Chemical Basis to Life     Water a polar molecule    Molecules of LifeBiological Molecules (Essentials #42) Enzymes  (Chapter 5/ Part II)
 Gibbs Free Energy/ (AP Essentials #12)
  Free Energy/Thermodynamics( Biology Essentials #12) Chemistry of Life & Evolution (read summary) (for those who love chemistry)