Course Title: AP Biology

Course Textbook: Campbell & Reece, et al, AP Edition Biology 9th Edition, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2011 (Students may also use the 8th edition of Campbell, Biology).

Lab Manuals:
A.P. Biology Inquiry Laboratory Manual for Students, College Board, 2012
A.P. Biology Laboratory Manual for Students, College Board, 2001,
Helms, Helms, Cummings, & Kosinski, Biology in the Laboratory, 3rd Edition, W. H. Freeman, 1998. Other materials may be used from other appropriate sources.


Course Objective:
To encourage the development of scientifically literate students who enjoy learning biology, who are confident in the laboratory, and who are ready to meet the future challenge of college-level science coursework. Students are prepared and urged to take the AP Biology Exam in May.  Since many colleges and universities do not give credit for the College Board exam, and students must pay for their exams, we cannot require students to sit for the exam.
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Course Description.

Every effort is made to insure that students are knowledgeable and develop mastery of the 4 big ideas:
a)     evolution drives the diversity and unity of life,
b)     biological use of free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis,
c)     living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to the information essential to life processes, and biological systems interact, and
d)     these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.
This course is also designed to cover the assigned topics which include biochemistry, cell structure and function, metabolism, genetics, molecular basis of inheritance, DNA technology, evolution, microbiology, classification, plants, animals, animal physiology, and ecology. The course has been redesigned to increase depth of knowledge downplaying past breath requirements. Over 25% of this course is devoted to laboratory experience which includes few teacher demonstrations, some traditional hands-on, guided laboratory activities as well as a minimum of 8 student designed laboratory exercises as required by the College Board. Also included are supplementary hands-on laboratory investigations not covered by the suggested labs, and expanded laboratory experiences in inquiry-based activities to augment the use of scientific method, problem solving, and high level thinking, formulating hypotheses, and designing testable questions. This course is open to all students that have completed college prep biology; completion or con-current enrollment in chemistry is recommended.




















Syllabus (Page 1)
Unit link to Acorn Guide    Curricular Requirement    Theme (s)    Topics    Reading/ Lectures/ Example Videos/ Assessments    Activities/ Labs/ Assessment (Lab Days- 50-55 minutes/day) includes  introduction, lab setup, data analysis discussion) Additional information on other labs included below.
III. Organisms and Populations 50%
    Ecology (10%)
Organisms and Populations    Science as a Process, Interdependence in nature, STS, Energy Transfer    Population dynamics, communities and ecosystems
Global issues    Independent Summer Reading: Chapters 50-55
Lecture:
Climate and Ecosystems
Population Biology
Behavior
Assessments:
1 Reading Quiz
1 Unit Test with FRQ    Safety and Scientific Method (teacher)
1. Slime Mold Inquiry (3 days) (hands on)
AP Lab 11: Behavior (3 days) (hands on)

Assessments:
Semi-Formal and Formal Lab write-ups with rubrics for each lab
Lab related questions or FRQ included with Unit Test
I. Molecules and Cells 25%    Chemistry of Life (7%)

Cellular Energetics (8%) (split between two units)    Science as a Process, Energy Transfer, Structure/ Function (Enzymes- Digestion),
Regulation    Water
Biochemistry (organic molecules)
Free Energy
Energetics
Enzymes
Digestion (Ch 41)    Chapters 1-5, 8
Lecture:
Properties of Water
Functional Groups
Macromolecules
Gibbs Free Energy
Thermodynamics
Enzymes

Video: Origins: How Life Began

Assessments
3 Reading Quizzes
1 Unit Test with FRQ    AP Lab 2: Enzymes (3 days) (hands on)
Toothpickase (1 day) (hands on)
Inquiry Lab with Enzymes (3 days)(hands on)

Assessments:
Semi-Formal and Formal Lab write-ups with rubrics for each lab
Lab related questions or FRQ included with Unit Test
















Syllabus (Page 2)

    Cells (10%)

Cellular Energetics (8%) (split between two units)    Energy Transfer, Structure/ Function (Membranes-Excretion), Regulation (Cell Cycle), Evolution (Endosymbiosis), STS    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Membranes
Subcellular organization

Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis
Cell Cycle and its regulation
Cell Communication    Chapter 6, 7,9-12
Lectures:
Membrane structure, function, osmosis, diffusion, ports; also include Excretion (Chapter 44: Osmoregulatin and Excretion)
Cellular Respiration
Photosynthesis,
Cell Cycle, p53, apoptosis, RAS, oncogenes,
Signal Transduction


Assessments
5 Reading Quizzes
1 Unit Test with FRQ    AP Lab 1: Osmosis and Diffusion + inquiry extension (4 days) (hands on)
AP Lab 5: Cellular Respiration (3 days) (hands on)
AP Lab 4: Photosynthesis (includes Spec 20 activity) (3 days) (hands on)
AP Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen/Photosynthesis (3 days) (hands on)
AP Lab 3A: Mitosis (2 days) (hands on)


Assessments:
Semi-Formal and Formal Lab write-ups with rubrics for each lab
Lab related questions or FRQ included with Unit Test
Unit link to Acorn Guide    Curricular Requirement    Theme (s)    Topics    Reading/ Lectures/ Example Videos/ Assessments    Activities/ Labs/ Assessment (Lab Days- 50-55 minutes/day) includes  introduction, lab setup, data analysis discussion) Additional information on other labs included below.
II. Heredity and Evolution (25%)    Heredity (8%) (split between two units)

Molecular Genetics (9%)    Structure and Function, Evolution, Regulation, STS, Science as a Process, Continuity and Change    Meiosis and gametogenesis, Eukaryotic Chromososmes
RNA and DNA Structure and Function, Gene Regulation, Mutation, Viral Structure and Replication, Nucleic Acid Technology and Application (also found in Evolution unit later)
Development
    Chapters 13, 16-21
Lectures:
Gametogenesis,
Structure Function of Nucleic Acids
Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes,
DNA Technology,
Viral structure and function,
Hox genes and development

Videos: DNA Secret of Life (Hour 1) , DNA Interactive
Intimate Universe: Everyday Miracle

Assessments
4 Reading Quizzes
1 Unit Test with FRQ    AP Lab 3B: Meiosis and Sordaria (2 days) (hands on)
AP Lab 7: Fruit Fly Genetics (on and off for 4 weeks) (hands on)
AP Lab 6 (note: Bacterial Transformation done by all regular biology students prior to AP Biology, students who did not take biology at this high school are directed to Lab Bench at Biology.com)
Restriction Digest Analysis with Mapping (hands on)
2. PV 92 Alu PCR, includes use of CSHL/ Allele Server exercises (hands on)

Assessments:
Semi-Formal and Formal Lab write-ups with rubrics for each lab
Lab related questions or FRQ included with Unit Test
    Heredity (8%) (split between two units)
    Science as a Process, Continuity and Change, Structure/ Function    Eukaryotic Chromosomes, Inheritance Patterns, Mutation    Ch 14,15
Patterns of inheritance
Epistasis

Video: HHMI: On Sex and Gender ( Sexual Evolution from X to Y )

Assessments
1 Reading Quiz
 Unit Test with FRQ included in 1st Semester Final Exam    3. Helms Lab 15: Human Genetics  (hands-on) (2 days)
4. Jumping Genes and Epistasis: Corn Genetics (2 days)


1st Semester Final Exam                Assessment:
100 Multiple Choice Questions + 2 FRQ    
Syllabus (Page 3)

Unit link to Acorn Guide    Curricular Requirement    Theme (s)    Topics    Reading/ Lectures/ Example Videos/ Assessments    Activities/ Labs/ Assessment (Lab Days- 50-55 minutes/day) includes  introduction, lab setup, data analysis discussion) Additional information on other labs included below.
2nd Semester                    
II. Heredity and Evolution (25%)

III. Organisms and Populations (50%)    Evolutionary Biology (8%)


Diversity of Organisms (8%)

Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (32%)    Science as a Process, Evolution, Continuity and Change, STS    Early Evolution of Life, Evidence of Evolution, Mechanisms of evolution
Evolutionary Patterns
Structural, physiological and behavioral adaptations, Nucleic Acid Technology    Ch 22-25, + P. 697-707 Primate/Human Evolution

Lecture:
Population Genetics
Mechanisms of Evolution
Wolbachia Bacterial Agent of Evolution
Taxonomy overview with
Phylogenetics/ systematics
Human Evolution
Memes

Videos: Journey of Man
Evolution Series: Why Sex?, Mind’s Big Bang

Assessments:
2 Reading Quizzes
 Unit Test with FRQ
    AP Lab 8 Hardy Weinberg/Population Genetics (hands-on) (1 day)
5. Comparative Proteomics (Fish Protein Lab) (hands-on) (4 days)
Bioinformatics Activity: Extension of Comparative Proteomics (hands-on computer activity) (2 days)
6. Phylogenetic Activity (hands-on computer activity) (2 days)
Assessments:
Semi-Formal and Formal Lab write-ups with rubrics for each lab
Lab related questions or FRQ included with Unit Test
III. Organisms and Populations (50%)    Evolutionary Biology (8%)


Diversity of Organisms (8%)

Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (32%)    Science as a Process, Structure/ Function, Evolution, Continuity and Change, Interdepence, STS    Reproduction, growth, development, Structural, physiological, behavioral adaptations, response to environment    Ch 26 -31

Lecture:
Origin and Diversity of Life
Asexual/ Sexual Reproduction
Alteration of Generations (protists, fungi, plants)

Videos: Private Life of Plants (Reproduction: Birds and Bees)
Fungi: Rotten World Among Us

Assessments:
2 Reading Quizzes
 Unit Test with FRQ    7. Helms Labs 22-25 (Survey of Eubacteria, Archaea, Protists, Fungi and Plants) 5 days (hands-on)

Assessments:
Lab Practicum










Syllabus (Page 4)

Unit link to Acorn Guide    Curricular Requirement    Theme (s)    Topics    Reading/ Lectures/ Example Videos/ Assessments    Activities/ Labs/ Assessment (Lab Days- 50-55 minutes/day) includes  introduction, lab setup, data analysis discussion) Additional information on other labs included below.
III. Organisms and Populations (50%)    Evolutionary Biology (8%)


Diversity of Organisms (8%)

Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (32%)    Science as a Process, Evolution, Structure/ Function, Regulation, Continuity and Change, STS    Reproduction, growth, development, Structural, physiological, behavioral adaptations, response to environment    Ch 35-39
Lecture:
Plant Morphology
Plant Evolution
Plant Hormones/ Cell Signaling

Assessments:
Take Home Unit Test with FRQ    AP Lab 9: Transpiration (3 days)
8. GMO PCR Lab  (4 days)


Assessments:
Lab Practicum
Formal lab write ups
III. Organisms and Populations (50%)    Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (32%)

Evolutionary Biology (8%)
    Science as a Process,  Structure/ Function,
Evolution, Continuity and Change    Reproduction, growth, development, Structural, physiological, behavioral adaptations, response to environment    Ch 32-34

Lecture:
Animal Phylogeny and Evolution

Videos: Shape of Life: Survival Game & Bones, Brawn, Brains

Assessments:
Unit Test with FRQ    9. Helms Labs 25-27 (Survey of Animal Kingdom: Porifera- Chordata) 5 days

Assessment:
Lab Practicum
III. Organisms and Populations (50%)    Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (32%)
    Science as a Process,  Structure/ Function, Evolution, Regulation, Continuity and Change, Energy Transfer    Reproduction, growth, development, Structural, physiological, behavioral adaptations, response to environment    Ch 40 -49 (many parts integrated into earlier units in the year)

Lecture: (Student developed PowerPoint)
    AP Lab 10 Physiology (Lab Bench/ Biology.com)
10. Helms 32: Animal Tissues (2 days) (hands-on)
11. Helms Lab 34-37 Fetal Pig Dissection (4 days) (Hands-on)

Assessments:
Lab write-up
Lab Practicum
        Science as a Process, Evolution,  STS    Final Project/ Group Presentation of current research (free choice by students)  covered during course.
    Videos: Story of AIDS, Evolution Series, What about God?
DNA: Pandora’s Box

Assessment:
Oral Presentation and PowerPoint    
2nd Semester Final Exam                100 multiple choice questions and 4 FRQ    


 Additional Information on Laboratory Activities
(supplement to required AP Biology College Board Labs)
1.    Slime Mold Inquiry Activity: Adapted from Bozzone & Martin (1998). “Chemotaxis in the Plasmodial Slime Mold Physarum polycephalum. An Experimental System for Student Exploration and Investigation.” The American Biology Teacher. 60:1. Page 60. (Purpose: Inquiry activity
2.    Biotechnology Explorer: Chromosome 16: PV92 PCR/Informatics Kit Catalog #166-2100EDU, extension includes use of http://www.geneticorigins.org/geneticorigins/pv92/aluframeset.htm (Purpose: Use of biotechnology, evolutionary relationships)
3.    Helms Lab 15: Human Genetic Traits (includes karyotyping, Barr bodies, non-disjunction, pedigrees). (Purpose: Genetics)
4.    Jumping Genes in Corn. Andrews, Baptist, Elwell, Kennedy, and Thompson. A Sourcebook of biotechnology Activities. National Association of Biology Teachers and the North Carolina Biotechnology Center. (Use of genetic dihybrid corn, epistatic corn crosses) (Purpose: Genetics)
5.    Biotechnology Explorer: Comparative Proteomics Kit 1: Protein Profiler Module Catalog# 166-2700EDU (Comparing myosin/actin proteins in fish, develop Phylogenetic relationships)
6.    Phylogenetics Activity: Investigating Polar Bear and Giant Panda Ancestry (Adapted from Maier, C.A. (2001) “Building Phylogenetic Trees from DNA Sequence Data: Investigating Polar Bear & Giant Panda Ancestry.” The American Biology Teacher. 63:9, Pages642-646.) OR something similar using BLAST and other bioinformatics tools (Purpose: Evolution and Phylogenetics)
7.    Helms Labs 22-25 (Survey of Monera, Protists, Fungi and Plants: example preserved and live examples of organisms) (Purpose: Survey of Diversity of Organisms)
8.    Biotechnology Explorer GMO Investigator Kit Catalog #166-2500EDU (looking for genetically modified corn in food) (Purpose: Use of biotechnology)
9.    Helms Labs 25-27 (Survey of Animal Kingdom: Porifera- Chordata) (looking at preserved specimen) (Purpose: Survey of Diversity of Organisms)
10.    Helms 32 (Animal Tissues) (examining preserved specimen (microscope slides)).( Purpose: Cell Types, Structure and Function)
11.    Helms 34-37 (Guide for dissection of fetal pigs) (Purpose: Survey of Body Systems in Mammals, structure and function of body systems).





Additional Information on Example Videos:
Videos are used to reinforce and examine topics in AP Biology:
1.    Shape of Life The Complete Journey: Slingshot Entertainment: Live on the Move, Survival Game, Bones, Brawn & Brains, 2002
2.    Origins: Fourteen Billion Years of Cosmic Evolution, NOVA, WGBH,  Earth is Born, How Life Began, 2004
3.    Frontline: PBS Influenza
4.    DNA: FFH Home Video: Secret of Life, Pandora’s Box
5.    HHMI 2001 Holiday Lectures: On Sex and Gender: Sexual Evolution from X to Y
6.    Journey of Man by Spencer Wells, PBS Home Video, 2003
7.    Evolution: WGBH Boston: Why Sex? The Mind’s Big Bang, What About God? 2001
8.    Fungi: The Rotten World Around Us, BBC, 1981
9.    Private Life of Plants: David Attenborough, The Birds and the Bees, Turner Home Entertainment & BBC, 1995
10.    Intimate Universe, BBC Video: An Everyday Miracle 1998
11.    History of HIV/AIDS: NOVA and Frontline series, 2006
12.    DNA Interactive (Dolan DNA Learning Center, CSHL) 2003

Laboratory Write-ups:
Laboratory write-ups range from summaries of the activities, problem solving (examples include: Chi Square, Q10, Punnett Squares, cladograms), formal lab write-ups (see below for requirements), and several practicum-based laboratory tests. Students are expected to gain knowledge in technical writing, statistical analysis of lab data, presentation of data in appropriate graphical format, discussion of results, and analysis of data to form inferences from data in both written and oral presentations.
(Semi-Formal laboratory write-ups are usually modified from the formal requirements)
Title: The title is a statement (not a question) reflecting the independent and dependent variables. Example: The Effect of Various Concentrations of Sucrose on Carrot Slices.
Abstract: 4-8 sentences. Includes 1-2 sentences of introductory information, 1-2 sentences regarding the purpose/hypothesis of the activity, 1-2 sentences regarding the result trends and 1-2 sentences regarding the analysis/conclusions of the activity.
Introduction: 1-2 paragraphs. The introduction/ background includes prior knowledge and important information regarding the activity. Also includes explanation of the key concepts and/or vocabulary. Make sure references used are credited in the following format. (Author's Last Name, Date of publication). Also make sure the full reference is found in the references section.
Hypotheses, Variables and Control. Please use the "if...then...because" format for the null and regular hypotheses. Make sure the independent, dependent and standardized variables are sentences. Also make sure the control includes an explanation of "why" this is a control for the experiment.
Materials/Methods/Procedure: Briefly describe in a paragraph what materials, methods and procedure used in the activity.
Results/Trends: Data tables and graphs must have  descriptive titles, see the title section for information. The data tables must be computer generated with appropriate reference to the units of the measurements taken during the activity. The graphs must be computer generated with both axes labeled and if more than one line is shown, a key must be provided. Include statistical calculations (ex. Chi Square, Means, Q10, etc.) The third requirement is a trend/results paragraph, describing in words the graph and/or data table contents.
Analysis/Conclusion/Lab Review Questions: In general the requirements of this section of the report are to provide an explanation of "why" of the results/data section supports or doesn't support any hypotheses. Use appropriate statistics to support inferences that can be drawn from data collected.  What information in the data section and the introduction help explain the results found? This might include the answers to the questions at the end of an activity.
References: (2 minimum) Use APA format
Other Curricular Activities:
1.    Optional: Summer Assignment: Ecology Unit Reading
2.    Extra Credit: Summer Reading Book Review
3.    Research Article Reviews: using primary research articles from Nature or Science or other acceptable research journal. (Required topics: photosynthesis, genes, evolution mechanisms, bioethics, extra credit topics: cell reproduction, and prokaryotes).
4.    Speakers: ranging from returning students talking about undergraduate research, professors from nearby universities, emergency room doctor, practicing researchers from industry.