Accelerated Homework by Chapter (Campbell, Biology Concepts & Connections 6th Edition)

Directions:

Read the assigned sections of the chapter(s) partial or whole chapters. ( you may need to scan for the correct chapters)

1. Record your notes in your journal. Label the top of the page with the date and the section heading numbers.

2. Pick a "note" style that works for you: Cornell note taking style OR outline OR mapping to record your notes.

Mind mapping: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_map

Cornell notes: http://coe.jmu.edu/learningtoolbox/cornellnotes.html

Outlining: http://educatoral.com/outline_format.html

3. Check out the homework assignment for the pages, vocabulary and key concepts to address in your notes.

4. For each key concept/ focus question explain why the concept is important in terms of maintaining life; (note not all listed categories apply to each key concept)

    a. obtaining energy

    b. evolution

    c. heredity

    d. eliminating waste

    e. humans

 Reading assignments are generally due the day before chapter reading quizzes.

Unit/Chapter(s)

Lecture Focus Questions (feel free to take more notes than just answering the questions)

The Basics and Behavior

 

Chapter 1 

 

Chapter 35 (partial) 35.1-35.7;35.9-35.11

 

Chapter 1

  1. List the levels of organization from atom to ecosystem, note how the levels relate to each other.
  2. Define a hypothesis, compare and contrast with a non-scientific hypothesis and theory.
  3. Describe and distinguish between the three domains of life. List examples of each domain
  4. List the seven properties of life, give examples.
  5. Describe the process of natural selection. Explain why individuals cannot evolve.
  6. Additional Key Terms: biology, organism, controlled experiment, adaptation, prokaryote, eukaryote

 Chapter 35

1.  Distinguish between “nature” and “nuture”  (genetic vs. environment) in terms of behavior.

2.  Define the five types of learning, give an example of each, and explain the value of each in terms of adaptation.

Chapter 

15.1-15.4 and 16.1-16.10 

 

Life on Earth

 

1.  Describe the conditions under which the first life likely formed and the nature of those first living organisms.

2.  Summarize the findings of Dr. Stanley Miller as well as the potential use of clay in the early evolution of life on Earth.

3.  Describe the role of RNA in the early evolution of life on earth.

4. Summarize the types of prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea). Give examples of nutrition, shape, living environments.

5. Additional Key terms: autotroph, heterotroph, photoautotroph, chemoautotroph, endosymbiosis, extreme halophile, extreme thermophilie

 Chapter 2

 

Inorganic Chemistry

  1. Describe the importance and variety of uses of chemicals for living organism (the ants on page 17)
  2. Distinguish and draw/diagram the differences between an ionic bond, a covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, a non-polar covalent bond, a hydrogen bond in order of strength (weak to strongest).
  3. Describe the special properties of water that make it vital to living systems. Relate these properties to hydrogen bonds.
  4. Additional Key Terms; pH, acid, base, buffer, radioactive isotope, ion, reactant, product, solution

 Chapter 3

 

Biochemistry

 

 

1. Explain why carbon is so versatile in forming the molecules of life.

2. In a table, list, describe and diagram* the four classes of biomolecules/organic molecules. * Diagram with element symbols and “-“ for bonds.

3. What are the monomers/building blocks of the four classes of biomolecules? When is a condensation/ dehydration synthesis reaction used with biomolcules? When is a hydrolysis reaction necessary?

4. What are the four levels of organization in the construction of a protein polymer?

5. Additional Key Terms. DNA, nucleotide, RNA, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, phosholipid, steroid, enzyme, functional groups (list and draw at least 5)

Chapter 4

 

Cells, Structure and Function

1. Define cell theory.

2. Explain why cell size and shape vary and why there is an upper and lower limit to cell size.

3. Explain the relationship between nanometer (nm), micrometer (µm), millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm) and meter (m). Use the Greek symbols please.

4. Explain why compartmentalization is important in eukaryotic cells.

5. Make a table that describes the structure and function of each organelle, note whether or not the organelle is found in plants or animals. (minimum 15)

6. Additional Key Terms: nucleoid area, plasma membrane, pilus or pili, flagellum or flagella, endomembrane system, glycoprotein, plasmodesmata, gap and tight junctions

Chapter 5.1-5.9 and Chapter 25.4-25.9  

 

Membranes

Membranes around the body:

 Excretion (Osmoregulation)

 (two assignment)

Chapter 5.1-5.9

1.  Describe the fluid mosaic structure of membranes and membrane proteins and receptors (don’t forget to explain how phospholipids contribute to the structure and property of cell membranes).

2.  Describe the difference between diffusion and osmosis.

3.  Distinguish between all of the tonic solutions. (iso-, hypo-hyper-).  Note:  Sometimes “osmotic”is used in place of tonic.

4.  Diagram the movement of water when a plant and animal cell is placed in the three types of tonic solutions.

5.  Additional Key Terms:  exocytosis, phagocytosis, endocytosis, pinocytosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, Brownian motion.

 

Chapter 25.4-25.9

  1. Define homeostasis and give an example. (Chapter 20.14)
  2. Name the three types of nitrogenous wastes and who makes each type. 
  3. Diagram a human kidney and nephron label the parts *use proper label technique (all labels on the right side of the diagram and use a ruler so lines are straight)
  4. Describe the osmoregulatory problems and associated adaptations of fresh water and salt water fish.
  5. Additional Key Terms: osmoconformer, osmoregulator

Chapter 5.10-5.16 and Chapter 21.4 -21.12

 

Energy, Enzymes and Digestion (2 assignments)

1.  Define the 1st and 2nd law of thermodynamics

2.  Explain how the nature of energy transformations is guided by these laws.

3.  Explain how ATP functions as an energy shuttle.

4.  Explain how enzymes speed up chemical reactions. Use two energy diagrams to show the difference between an endergonic and an exergonic reaction.

5.  Additional Key Terms: substrate, activation energy, entropy, enthalpy, potential, kinetic, chemical, heat, active site, cofactor, coenzyme, competitive inhibitor, negative feedback, noncompetitive inhibitor

 

21.4-21.12

1.  Make a table relating the organ of digestion to the enzymes they produce and the bimolecular, reactant and  end products of digestion. *Start in the mouth and keep going…LOL;-)

2.  Define vitamin and relate the importance of vitamins with the function of enzymes, give at least 3 examples.

3.  NO ADDITIONAL KEY TERMS

Chapter 6 all and Chapter 30.7-30.9 + 30.11

 

Cellular Respiration and Muscles (two assignments)

1.  Describe the overall chemical equation for cellular respiration. Compare the efficiency of the process in cells to the efficiency of the gasoline engine.

2. Explain how the energy is released and where the energy is harvested from a glucose molecule during cellular respiration. (This is a bookkeeping question).

3. Define re-dox reaction and explain how re-dox is a part of cellular respiration.

4. Describe the role of ETC and chemiosmosis in cellular respiration.

5. Distinguish between strict anaerobes and facilitative anaerobes and give an example of each.

6. Additional Key Terms; dehydrogenase, NAD+, electron carrier, ATP syntase, substrate-level phosporylation, glycolysis, Krebs, ETC, acetyl CoA, alcoholic fermentation, lactic acid fermentation

 

30.7-30.9, 30.11

1. Describe and draw (includes labels) the structure and arrangement of the filaments found in a muscle, this includes, actin, myosin, crossbridges, and the parts of a sacromere.

2. Explain (step by step) how a muscle contracts using sliding filament theory. See  “muscle contraction song  (US Marine tune- count off one, two...).

3. Explain what causes muscles to tire. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic exercise and note the advantages to each.

4. How does the reading in Chapter 30 relate to the reading in Chapter 6?

No Additional Key Terms for Chapter 30.

Chapter 7

Photosynthesis

1. Describe the structure of chloroplasts in a leaf.

2. Explain the relationship of “re-dox” within photosynthesis, yes use the equation.

3. Compare the reactants and products of the light reaction and the Calvin cycle.

4. Explain how the ETC and chemiosmosis make ATP, NADPH and O2 in the light reaction. How is this process similar in the mitochondria?

5. Another bookkeeping question; describe the reactants and products of the Calvin cycle; explain why this cycle is depend on the Light Reaction.

6. Compare and contrast C3, C4 and CAM photosynthesis. Why bother with all the difference types of photosynthesis.

7. Describe the fundamental relationship between respiration and photosynthesis (check out Chapter 6.18).

8. Additional Key Terms: autotroph, producer, mesophyll, stroma, stoma, thylakoid, granum, carbon fixation, photosystems, photophosphorylation, electromagnetic spectrum, photon (not the torpedo type, Star Trek rules J), global warming and the greenhouse effect

Chapter 8.1-8.11 and Chapter 10.1 -10.5 and Chpt 11.18-11.21

Cell Cycle and  Mitosis, DNA Replication

Chapter 8

1. Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction.

2. Describe the stages and significance of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2) and where IPMAT fits into cycle.

3. Draw and label all the parts and phases of mitosis, highlight the “KEY” event of each phase. (if the “KEY” event didn’t happen how would that affect the subsequent phase?).

4. What is the role of cyclins and MPF in cell cycle? Are there any other important signal molecules involved?

5. What is apoptosis? Why is apoptosis necessary and important to organisms?

6. Explain (in terms of mitosis) how cancer cells are different from healthy cells.

Additional Key Terms: binary fission, sister chromatid, chromatin, centromere

 

Chapter 10

1. Explain the steps in DNA replication; include complementary base pairing and all the enzymes.

2. Why does the “lagging” strand lag?

Chapter 8.12- 8.23

Chapter 27.4-27.5, 27.9-27.13

Chapter 31.9-3.12

Chapter 26.10

 

Meiosis, Animal and Plant Development (three assignments)

 

1. Explain and draw how chromosomes are paired prior to the beginning of meiosis.

2. Draw all the phases (IPMATPMAT).

3. Does cytokinesis always occur between Meiosis I and Meiosis II? Why or why not?

4. What are all the ways that cells during meiosis can increase genetic variation in the next generation?

5. What happens when meiosis go awry (wrong)? Read the article. Give three examples with a brief explanation of each. Nondisjunction XYY (check out the other links at the end of the article (direct link to all aneuploidy conditions)

 

Additional Key Terms: somatic cell, gamete, diploid (2N), haploid (1N), autosomes, sex chromosomes, karyotyping

 

Chapter 27

1. Describe the differences between oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

2. Give an overview of the menstrual cycle, give a hormonal control viewpoint (negative feedback). See the article “The Good Egg” write a one paragraph summary.

3. When and how does fertilization take place in an animal? List the stages that follow fertilization? (hint: start with cleavage).

4. What is the role of apoptosis in development?

 

Chapter 31

1. Describe the sexual organs of a flower and their functions.

2. Why is plant fertilization referred to as “double fertilization”.

3. Explain what the end “product” of plant fertilization is and give an example.

 

Chapter 26.10

1. Describe the three major categories of sex hormones and note their functions.

Chapter 23.1-23.7 and 23.12 -23.15 (circulation/transport)

 

 

Chapter 24 (Immune system)

 

Chapter 10.17-10.21 (viruses)

 

Chapter 26.1-26.11 (endocrine and chemical regulation)

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 23

1. Describe the overall purpose of a circulatory system.

2.      Compare open and closed circulatory systems and gastrovascular cavities.

3.      Compare the cardiovascular systems of a fish and a mammal

4.      Trace a drop of blood through the mammalian heart starting at the left atrium back to the left atrium.  List the parts the drop of blood travels over and through during its trip.  Diagram the human heart and label the ventricles, atrium, valves, and major veins and arteries connected to the heart.

5.      Compare and contrast arteries, veins and capillaries in terms of structure and function. What keeps blood moving through the body?

6.      Diagram and label the parts of the heart’s electrical system.

7.     Explain how capillaries transfer substances  through their epithelial cells.

8. What are the major components of the liquid (plasma) and solid (cellular elements) of the blood?

9. How are erythrocytes produced and able to transfer oxygen? What is anemia?

10. How does blood clotting work?

11. What are stem cells, where are they found? What is the relationship between stem cells and cancer?

 

Chapter 24 and Chpt 10

1.      What nonspecific defenses does the body use to battle infection?  Why are they called nonspecific?

2.      Describe the specific nature of an immune system response.  Define antigen, antibody, passive immunity, and active immunity.

3.      Describe the development and functions of B and T lymphocytes

4.      What is the role of antibodies?  How do they relate to antigens?

5.      Describe the specific functions of cytotoxic T cells, and helper T cells.  Note their interactions with other cells

6.      Explain the mechanism of HIV infection and the medical consequences. 

7.      How do vaccines work?

8.      Additional key terms:  interferon, complement protein, macrophage, NK cell, lymphatic system, active immunity, passive immunity, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity, MHC

 

Chapter 26.1-26.11

1.      Define a hormone and compare the mechanism and function of the endocrine and nervous systems.

2.      Compare the two general mechanisms by which hormones trigger changes in target cells.

3.      Describe the functions of the thyroid gland and the hormones it secretes.

4.      Explain how insulin and glucagons work to manage blood glucose levels. 

5.      Additional Key Terms: none

 

Chapter 10.17-10.22

1.      Compare a lytic viral phage with a lysogenic viral phage.

2.      Explain how viruses evolve and why certain viruses are more dangerous than other viruses.

3.   Explain how HIV enters a host cell and reproduces.

Chapter 10.6-10.16

 

Central Dogma: Molecular Biology of the Gene (protein synthesis)

 

Chapter 10.6-10.16

1.      What is the central dogma?

2.      Describe the locations, reactants, and products of transcription and translation.

3.      Explain how RNA is produced.

4.      Explain how eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus (post transcriptional processing).  Why doesn’t this occur in prokaryotic cells?

5.      Describe the structure & function of a ribosome.  Which subunit binds to mRNA and which binds to tRNA?

6.      Explain how translation begins.  Describe the step by step process by which amino acids are added to a growing polypeptide chain

7.      Transcribe and translate the following DNA code * use the codon “rosetta stone” and indicate which is the condon and which is the anticodon: TAC-AGC-CGG-TAA-AAT

8.      Once a protein is made, what happens next?

9.      Describe three major types of mutations and their possible consequences.

10.  Additional Key Terms:  intron, exon, triplet code, mutagen

 

Chapter 9

Patterns of Inheritance

 

  1. Define and distinguish between true-breeding organisms, hybrids, the P generation, the F1 generation, and the F2 generation.
  2. Define and distinguish between the following pairs of terms: genotype vs. phenotype, dominant allele vs. recessive allele, heterozygous vs. homozygous, and monohybrid cross vs. dihybrid cross.
  3. List and discuss Mendel’s principles. (use the words segregation of alleles, independent assortment, monohybrid, dihybrid and homologous chromosomes in your discussion).
  4. What is a testcross? When would a geneticist use a testcross?
  5. When do you use the rule of addition or rule of multiplication in a genetic probability event?
  6. How are recessive and dominant disorders inherited?
  7. Compare and contrast incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, pleiotropy, and polygenic inheritance (epistasis). Give an example of each type of inheritance.
  8. What are linked genes?
  9. Explain how sex is genetically determined in humans and other organisms.
  10. Describe the pattern of sex-linked inheritance, give one example for humans and one for fruit flies.

Additional Key Terms: self-fertilize, cross-fertilize, carrier, ABO blood groups, amniocentesis, CVS, chromosome theory of inheritance.

Chapter 12.1-12.7; 12.10-12.13; 12.15-12.20 and

 and

Chapter 11.1-11.10

Advances in Genetics & Biotechnology

 

Chapter 12

  1. Differentiate between transformation, transduction, and conjugation. Explain why bacterial mating is not sexual reproduction.
  2. What is a plasmid?
  3. What is a restriction enzyme? Why are these enzymes useful to a bacteria and a scientist?
  4. Describe gel electrophoresis and how it is used to sort DNA.
  5. What is PCR?
  6. What do scientists propose as the purpose of that non-coding DNA serves? Is “junk DNA” an appropriate term anymore?
  7. What is a transposon? Are they harmful, useful or both?
  8. What is a DNA fingerprint? How is it done? Is there more than one method?
  9. Explain how DNA technology has helped produce insulin, genetically modified organisms (GMO) and gene therapy.
  10. Are there any ethical (bioethics) issues involved with the technology in question 9.

 

Chapter 11.1-11.10

1.  Explain how the control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells is analogous (similar) to the control of water moving through a series of pipes that carry water from your local water supply to a faucet in your home.

2. Describe and compare the regulatory mechanisms of the lac operon, the trp operon, and operon using activators.

Chapters 13, and 14, and 15

Evolution of Populations, Origin of Species, and Systematics

 

Three Assignments

 

Chapter 13

1.      Explain and give an example of how the fossil record provides some of the strongest evidence of evolution with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation and mass extinction.

2.      Explain how biogeography, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology and molecular biology (ex.: protein sequences) document evolution.

3.      Explain & give an example of Darwin’s concept of natural selection.  Explain why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.  Explain why “survival of the fittest” can be misleading.

4.      Explain and give an example that explains why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be maintained in a gene pool.

5.      Explain how the bottleneck effect, the founder effect, gene flow, and mutation influence microevolution, including a statement defining microevolution.

6.      Describe the five conditions required for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium which describes a non-evolving population. 

7.      Explain how genetic variation is maintained in populations.

8.      Additional Key terms:  adaptation, homologous structure, artificial selection, genetic drift, heterozygote advantage, stabilizing selection, directional selection, diversifying selection

 

Chapter 14

  1. Explain & give an example of how a new species evolves.
  2. Define adaptive radiation and explain why the Galapagos finches or  are a good example
  3. Additional Key Terms:  biological/sexual species concept, punctuated equilibrium,  adaptive radiation

Chapter 15

  1. Distinguish between the terms macroevolution and microevolution.
  2. Name the eras in the geological timeline, and indicate the major groups of organisms that thrived during each of these eras.
  3. Explain how Carbon-14 and Potassium-40 are most appropriately used to determine the age of rocks and fossils.
  4. Explain how phylogenetic trees, hierarchical classification systems, and data from molecular comparisons help systematists organize data describing evolutionary history.
  5. Define the terms homologous and analogous,  and explain the cladistic and classical approach to phylogeny.   How does a knowledge of molecular biology factor into determining phylogeny?

Additional Key Terms:  radiometric dating, continental drift, convergent evolution, molecular clock

Chapter 28 Nervous Systems and Ch 37.13-37.22 Behavior

1.      Develop a concept map that describes the structural and functional subdivisions of the nervous system (hint see your class notes)

2.      Describe the functions and diagram the structure of three types of neurons.

3.      Describe the physiological basis for a neuron’s resting potential and also for an action potential. 

4.      Describe the activity of neurotransmitters.

5.      Compare the functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the peripheral nervous system

6.      Describe the parts and functions of the human brain.  Diagram and label the parts. 

7.      Diagram the cerebral cortex and label the mapped areas of control/integration.

Additional Key Terms:  effector,  nerve, ganglion, sodium-potassium pump, threshold potential, acetylcholine, feedback loops, cephalization, cerebrospinal fluid, meninges, white matter, gray matter, corpus callosum

Chapter 37.13-37.22

1. Define sociobiology and include an example of how sociobiology relates to evolution.                                       2. Name several types of behavior, what does each behavior address (what is the underlying goal)?                      3. What purpose is altruistic acts?                                                                                                                        4. What is the relationship between social behavior and genes?

Chapter 34, 36, 35.1-35.5 + 35.8, Chapter 37.1-37.7, Chapter 38.1-38.5

The Biosphere, Population Dynamics, Communities and Ecosystems, and Conservation of Species Populations

 

Four assignments

 

Chapter 34

1.      Describe the abiotic factors that affect the organisms living in a particular ecosystem and in the biosphere

2.      Name the two types of aquatic ecosystems and nine types of terrestrial biomes, indicating for each the defining abiotic characteristics ( example: avg. temperature/precipitation, and the characteristic features of the plants and animals.

3.      Additional Key Terms:  estuary, wetland, intertidal zone, biotic, aphotic

 

Chapter 36

1.      Discuss the forces that tie populations together into communities: competition, predation and symbiosis.  Give an example of each. 

2.      Explain how disturbances can be beneficial to a community.  Distinguish between primary and secondary succession.

3.      Define the trophic levels that occur in most ecosystems and discuss how energy flow through trophic level structure results in an energy pyramid. Be sure to include why there are more producers than consumers, the 10% rule and why eating meat is considered a great luxury.

4.       Explain how water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus are cycled within ecosystems.

5.      Additional Key Terms:  eutrophication, interspecific competition, competitive exclusion principle, niche, biodiversity, coevolution, detritivore,

 

Chapter 35.1-35.5 + 35.8,

  1. Define population density and describe techniques to measure it. 
  2. Describe and compare the exponential growth model and the logistic growth model, illustrating both with examples.  Explain the concept of carrying capacity.
  3. Describe the factors that regulate growth in natural populations. 
  4. Define boom and bust cycles, explaining why they occur and give an example. 
  5. Use these words in a coherent sentence relative to population biology:  birth, immigration, emigration, death
  6. Additional Key Terms:  none

Chapter 38.1-38.5

  1. State why biodiversity is important and why its loss is such a serious problem; specifically naming some of the factors that are contributing to the problem.
  2. Discuss the major causative factors involved in global warming.
  3. Additional Key Terms:  endemic species, greenhouse effect, biological magnification