AP Biology Chapter Homework Guide (template)

The Four Big Ideas (organizing principles of AP Biology):
Big Idea #1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life
Big Idea #2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis
Big Idea #3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes
Big Idea #4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties

Jump to: Chapters: 51-56; 1-3, 4, 5 & 8, 6-7, 9 & 10, 11 &12, 13, 14 & 15, 16 , 17 & 18, 19, 20, 21, 22-24 & 26, 25 & 27, 28, 32-34, 36, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 48&49

General Directions: The College Board (as of the 2012-2013 school year) has changed the focus of the AP Biology curriculum. There is a greater emphasis on laboratory work and less time for traditional instruction methods (lecture). In order to clear more time in the laboratory the classroom practices have been "flipped," which means you are responsible for spending a bit more time at home watching online lectures (podcasts). The 2012-2013 class recommends that you watch Crash Course videos as a source of expected prior knowledge right after a unit test in preparation to doing unit homework. Crash Course Videos are posted on this homework document. Here is a link to the expected prior knowledge as determined by the College Board (full document). Here is a link to a simplified version of prior knowledge.

Homework Directions: Please watch the Crashcourse video first then Bozeman Podcasts , then look through the figures in the assigned chapters, be sure to study any sidebars about experiments that go along with the reading in each chapter. Type or hand write out notes for each of the chapters. HOWEVER, the form of notes you take is your decision (Illegible handwriting will not receive credit). I recommend that you do your best to address the ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE (EK) for each chapter assigned as well as pick at least ONE illustrative example (IE) to expand on the group of ES. If typing please use single-space to save paper.

Essential Knowledge is part of Learning Objectives, these objectives are used to determine test questions (multiple choice, grid-in, short answer and FRQ (essays) both on class tests and the national AP Exam. IE, illustrative examples are used to practice writing about learning objectives.

All homework is due on the day indicated on the monthly calendar. The latest you can turn in an assignment is the day of the unit exam. After that all assignments are worth a maximum of 75%.

Reading notes (recommended EK and IE) are required to establish good practices.

The first set of chapters are from the 1st unit (Ecology & Behavior) you are welcome to work on this as an optional assignment during the summer. The due dates for these chapters will be posted on the 1st Semester Homework Calendar.(located on the class web page.

Homework Example: (Recommendation: Write or Type out the Essential Knowledge Statements at the top of each paragraph and identify the Illustrative Example. This practice will make reviewing for unit tests and final exams more meaningful).

Statement of Essential Knowledge

Essential knowledge Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure.

Evidence that supports this claim

Some molecules enter and leave the cell via “gated” channel proteins embedded in the cell membrane.  These transport proteins open and close in response to changes in the cellular environment. 

How does the evidence support the claim? (elaboration and example)

Gated channel proteins function as selective barriers, allowing cells to regulate the uptake of certain molecules while restricting the passage of others.

Last: Now pick an illustrative example (IE) from the last column, you need one from each Essential Knowledge (EK) in each chapter, note there are not always an IE for each EK, also those are page numbers in your textbook next to each IE, some of the IE repeat this means 2 things, you can use a different IE for each EK (the benefit would be a large variety of examples. OR you can use the same IE for the different EK so that you see how the same example can viewed/understood from a variety of scientific applications) The page numbers are only valid for Campbell's AP Biology Edition 9 (if you have the 8th edition you'll have to use the index. (sorry).

Chapter  (required pages to read) 

(The first chapter(s) listed are found in Campbell's 9th edition, the second one in parentheses is for the free OpenStax ebook there are 8 units each unit is subdivided and each subdivision is also subdivided into chapters, ex. Unit 7-Chap __) note tthat Open Stax has updated its site and numbers may not match, double check the topic within each unit)

x

Podcasts to be watched (note you can go to the main link on the class web site for PPT/Prezi and more...) Technically this is what you need to know. Case Studies to help you understand goes along with each chapter. (use this link to find any weird links that go to “javascript” that I missed fixing).


Chapter Topics/ Essential Knowledge (EK)

Illustrative Examples (pick at least one) per EK(the same examples may appear more than once pick different ones for each chapter)
(Note calculations and formulas are listed on Appendix A)

The page numbers are only valid for Campbell's AP Biology Edition 9 as determined by the publisher (all errors are theirs)

If you have the 8th edition you'll have to use the index. (sorry).

If you are using the free OpenStax Biology ebook you will have to use the index as well.

51 (pages 1123-1139)

whole chapter

(OpenStax Unit 8- )

Animal Behavior -

CrashCourse Biology #25




 

Behavior & Natural Selection
Information Exchange
Response to external environments
Aposematic Coloration
Types of Behavior
Pillbug Behavior

TED talk: Human Behavior


Animal Behavior

1. Individuals can act on information and communicate to others.
2. Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection.
3.Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution
4.Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations
5.Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes
6-Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics

1. Fight or flight response 206, 207; Predator warning 1127, 1139; Protection of young; Plant-plant interactions due to herbivory 1198; Avoidance responses 1125, 1126; Herbivory responses 1198; Territorial marking in mammals 1184; Coloration in flowers 761; Bee dances 1121; Birds songs 1134; Pack behavior in animals 1119; Herd, flock, and schooling behavior in animals 1119; Predator warning 1127; Colony and swarming behavior in insects 1124; Coloration 1197; Parent and offspring interactions 1124, 1127; Migration patterns 1119; Courtship and mating behaviors 482, 483, 490-491, 1120, 1130, 1131, 1132, 1134; Foraging in bees and other animals 1121; Avoidance behavior to electric fences, poisons, or traps 1125, 1126
2. Availability of resources leading to fruiting body formation in fungi and certain types of bacteria 638, 639, 640, 649, 793, 794, 795; Niche and resource partitioning 1195, 1196; Mutualistic relationships (lichens; bacteria in digestive tracts of animals 797, 1199; and mycorrhizae) 571; Biology of pollination 572, 624, 625, 626, 627, 637, 645, 646, 647, 806, 807; Hibernation 872; Estivation 872; Migration 1119, 1136; Courtship 482, 483, 490-491, 1120, 1130, 1131, 1132
3.Graphical analyses of allele frequencies in a population; 457, 458, 459, 460, 474; Analysis of sequence data sets 541; Analysis of phylogenetic trees 538, 539, 540; Construction of phylogenetic trees based on sequence data 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547
4-Flowering time in relation to global climate change 201, 839, 840; Sickle cell Anemia 84, 406, 484; DDT resistance in insects 470; Artificial selection 459; Loss of genetic diversity within a crop species 459 815; Overuse of antibiotics 462

52 (pgs 1150-1152)

52.2 only

(OpenStax Unit 8)

Ecology - Rules for Living on Earth: Crash Course Biology #40




 Homeostasis & Ecology Prezi
Abiotic & Biotic Factors
Ecosystems
Niches


Deep Sea TED talk

Climate, biomes,

1. 2.D.1 All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy


Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predator–prey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223


53 (1170-1191)

whole chapter

(OpenStax Unit 8-)

x

 Populations
R & K Selection


TED talk: Biomimicry

Activity: Techniques for Estimating Population Density and Size

Activity: Investigating Survivorship Curves

Activity: Analyzing Age-Structure Pyramids

Activity: Human Population Growth

Population Dynamics

Population growth (logistic/exponential), life history, density dependent factors, human population growth

1. 2.D.1 All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy

2. 4.A.5 Communities are composed of populations of organisms that interact in complex ways

3. All living systems require constant input of free energy


Required Calculation: Create and solve rate and growth problems (see chapter):  Rate: dY/dt; Population growth: dN/dt=B-D
Exponential Growth: dN/dt =r (max) N 
Logistic Growth: dN/dt= r(max)N(K-N/K)
IE:
1: Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predator–prey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223

2-Predator/prey relationships spreadsheet model 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Symbiotic relationship 571, 649, 801, 1199; Graphical representation of field data 1174, 1175; Introduction of species 1165; Global climate change models 1146, 1147

3-Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperatures) 147, 149, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Ectothermy (the use of external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature) 147, 148, 149, 165, 166, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Life-history strategy (biennial plants, reproductive diapause) 1180, 1181; Change in the producer level can affect the number and size of other trophic levels 1202, 1203, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1220, 1221, 1222, 1226; Change in energy resources levels such as sunlight can affect the number and size of the trophic levels 1228-1229, 1230

54 (1194-1215) whole chapter

(OpenStax Unit 8)

x

 Communities
Ecosystems Impacts
Ecological Succession
Biodiversity
Cooperative Interactions

TED talk Beauty of Pollination

How Are Impacts on Community Diversity Measured?

Activity: Interspecific Interactions

Activity: Primary Succession


Community Interactions, diversity, trophic structure, disturbance influence on species diversity/composition, biogeographic factors, pathogens alter community structure

1. Interactions between and within populations influence patterns of species distribution and abundance

2-Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection
2-The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem
3-Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy
4-. All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy


1-Loss of keystone species; Kudzu; Dutch elm disease
2-Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predator–prey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223

3-Predator/prey relationships spreadsheet model 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Symbiotic relationship 571, 649, 801, 1199; Graphical representation of field data 1174, 1175; Introduction of species 1165; Global climate change models 1146, 1147

4-Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649; Predator–prey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223

55 (1219-1233)

whole chapter

(OpenStax Unit 8)

x

 Exchanging Materials with the Environment
Biogeochemical Cycling

How Do Temperature and Light Affect Primary Production?

Activity: Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling

Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology
1. interactions among living systems and with their environment result in movement of energy and matter.
2. All living things require constant input of energy

Required calculation: Primary Productivity & Carbon Fixation (you'll need to wait until we do the lab in Sept.)
mg Oxygen/L * 0.698= mL Oxygen/L
mL Oxygen/L * 0.536 = mg carbon fixed/L
IE:
1-Cell density 1178, 1179; Biofilms 207, 565; Temperature 1157, 1158; Water availability 778; Sunlight 1157, 1223; Symbiosis (mutualism, commensalism, parasitism) 571, 648, 649;
Predator–prey relationships 1129, 1135, 1165, 1197, 1205; Water and nutrient availability, temperature, salinity, pH 793, 794, 795; Water and nutrient availability 1183; Availability of nesting materials and sites 1153-1156; Food chains and food webs 1202, 1203, 1204; Species diversity 1201; Population density 1171, 1172, 1173, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185; Algal blooms 1223
2-Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperatures) 147, 149, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Ectothermy (the use of external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature) 147, 148, 149, 165, 166, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Life-history strategy (biennial plants, reproductive diapause) 1180, 1181; Change in the producer level can affect the number and size of other trophic levels 1202, 1203, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1220, 1221, 1222, 1226; Change in energy resources levels such as sunlight can affect the number and size of the trophic levels 1228-1229, 1230

56 (1239-1244, 1254-1260)

56.1 & 56.4

(OpenStax Unit 8)

x

 Ecosystems Impacts
Homeostatic Disruptions

TED talk: Saving basking sharks
TED talk: 6 ways fungi can save the world

How Are Potential Restoration Sites Analyzed?

DDT: risks vs benefits

Activity: Introduced Species: Fire Ants

Madagascar and Biodiversity Crisis

Conservation Biology and Global Change
1-Homeostatic mechanism reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments
2. Distribution of local & global ecosystems change over time
3. Diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence stability of the ecosystem
4. Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis

1-Thermoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals (countercurrent exchange mechanisms) 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868
2-Dutch elm disease 650; Potato blight 588; Small pox [historic example for Native Americans] 944; Continental drift 520; Meteor impact on dinosaurs 521, 522
4-Physiological responses to toxic substances 1255, 1256, 1257; Dehydration; 69; Immunological responses to pathogens, toxins, and allergen 947; Invasive and/or eruptive species 1242; Human impact 1239, 1240, 1243, 1244, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1259; Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, and fires 1152, 1208, 1209; Water limitation 966; Salination 134

AP Biology Chapter Assignments: check monthly calendars for due dates (worth 5%)

9th Edition Chapters (required reading pages) (please make sure you read about any experiments in the chapters)

Crash Course “Refresher” Podcasts: Example of prior knowledge (you should have covered this in your first biology course...)

Podcasts to be watched (note you can go to the main link on the class web site for PPT/Prezi and more...)

Chapter Topics/ Essential Knowledge (ES) (also keep in mind the questions in column 2)

 Illustrative Examples (pick at least one) per ES (the same examples may appear more than once pick different ones for each chapter)

(Note calculations and formulas are listed on Appendix A)

 

1 (skim only)

( OpenStax Unit 1)

x

Case Study How Do Environmental Changes Affect a Population?

Case Study: How does acid precipitation affect trees?

Suggested questions to consider, do not turn in

List the major themes of life and give an example of each.

Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels, define "form fits function".x

x

x

2 (skim only)

( OpenStax Unit 1 )

x

 Suggested questions to consider, do not turn in

Case Study: How are space rocks analyzed for life?

Explain why weak bonds are important to living organisms. 

How are molecules shaped (3-D) and how is the shape related to function?

x

x

3 (46-56)

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 1)





Water - Liquid Awesome: Biology #2









Water a polar molecule 
Suggested questions to consider, do not turn in

What are the 5 emergent properties that result from hydrogen bonding?  

What is an aquaporin? Why are aquaporins important to life?

Explain how buffers work. 

Water

Orgamisms must exchange matter withe the environments to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization

cohesion, adhesion, high specific heat capacity, universal solvent supports reactions, heat of vaporization & fusion, water thermal conductivity, root hairs, cells of alveoli, microvilli

 

4 (58-63)

4.1 and 4.3 required

( OpenStax Unit 1)

That’s Why Carbon Is A Tramp: Biology #1


Functional Groups

Case Study What Factors Determine the Effectiveness of Drugs?

Draw a structural diagram of a molecule with every functional group. (This doesn’t exist in nature!)

How did "vitalism" influence the development of organic chemistry?

Explain why carbon contributes to diversity and complexity of organic molecules.

Is ATP ubiquitous? Why?

Organic Chemistry
There are several hypotheses about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting evidence
Orgamisms must exchange matter withe the environments to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization

carbon forms diverse molecules

5 (68-89)

read whole chapter

Molecular Shapes/enantiomers info

The truth about lipids

(OpenStax Unit 1)

Biological Molecules -You Are What You Eat: Biology #3


Moleules of Life
Biological Molecules
Protein Structure and Function
Part II (protein)

TED talk: making spider silk

Draw and describe the structure, function/characteristics and unique properties of the four major macromolecules/ biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids).

For each type of molecule make sure you explain why the structure of the molecules helps predict the function (especially in proteins) and possible interactions with other molecules.

Structure & Function of Large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule
Variations in molecular unites provides cells with a wider range of functions
DNA, and in some cases RNA, the primary source of heritable information

different types of phospholipids in cell membranes, different types of hemoglobin, MHC proteins, Chlorophylls, Molecular diversity of antibodies in response to antigens, antifreeze gene in fish, addition of a poly A tail and GTP cap, enzymatic reactions, transport of proteins, protein synthesis, degradation of molecules,

Chapter 8 (142-160)

read whole chapter

( Additional readings and figures:)

Ch 41.3 Enzymes and Digestion

Ch 41.4 Evolutionary Adaptations

LINK: Violation of 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

( OpenStax Unit 2) and Unit 7

ATP & Respiration: Biology #7

Free Energy (Bioenergetics)
Enzymes
Gibbs Free Energy
Free energy & thermodynamics
Coupled Reactions
Negative & Positive Feedback Control
more on feedback control

Case Study How Is the Rate of Enzyme Catalysis Measured?

Explain the relationship between entropy, enthalpy and life in terms of Gibbs Free Energy.

Why is free energy a negative value. Use enzymes (catabolic and anabolic) as your examples.

What are all the different types of enzyme interactions? Use simple drawings to note the other molecules that interact with enzymes. 

What is the link between the different areas of where digestion occurs and the types of enzymes involved in those activities?

LabBench  AP Lab 2 Enzymes

Metabolism, Free Energy, Thermodynamics & Enzymes
All living systems require constant input of free energy
Organisms' metabolism transform matter and energy (thermodynamics)
Free energy change of reaction determines whether a  reaction is sponataneous
ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions
Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering activation (energy ) barriers

Required Calculations: create and solve a Gibbs Free Energy Equations
Delta G= Delta H - T Delta S, determining if a reaction is spontaneous and a
Q10= (k2/k1)^ 10/T2-T2


IE: Endothermy/Ectothermy (use of thermal energy to generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperature)
Regulation of enzyme reactions
Abiotic factors that change enzyme reaction rates or structure or function

Chapter 6 (98-112)

required 6.2-6.5

( OpenStax Unit 2)

Eukaryopoplis - The City of Animal Cells: Biology #4

Plant Cells: Biology #6








Characteristics of Life
3 domains of life
Tour of the cell
Cellular Variation
Why are cells so small
Cellular Organelles
Compartmentalization/ Specialization
Cooperative Interactions
Cellular Membranes

TED talk: Synthetic Cells
TED talk: Secret LIfe of Plankton

Case Study: Size and Scale of the world

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Relate animal and/ plant organelle structure to their function. ( compare and contrast plant and animal cells.) (don't forget SER, RER, Golgi, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton...)

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells' cilia/flagella?

 What structures help cells maintain close contact with adjacent cells,

Tour of the cell, organelles
1-Orgamisms must exchange matter withe the environments to grow, reproduce, and maintain organization
2-Eukayotic cells maintain internal membrames that partition the cell into specialized regions
3-The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes
4-Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter

Required Calculations: set up a problem and solve surface area vs. volume.
1- cohesion, adhesion, high specific heat capacity, universal solvent supports reactions, heat of vaporization & fusion, water thermal conductivity, root hairs, cells of alveoli, microvilli

2, 3-endoplasmic reticulum, mitocondria, chlorroplasts, nuclear envelope,

 4-exchange of gases, circulation of fluids, digestion of food, excretion of wastes, bacterial community in the rumen of animals, bacterial communities in around deep sea vents

Chapter 7 (125-138)

read whole chapter

( Additional readings and figures:)

Ch 36.1 - 36.3  Transport in Plants

Ch 42.1, 42.5, 42.7 Gas exchange

Excretion in Animals  Ch 44.3, 44.4 (963-968)

Ch 48: Movement of Ions in Nerve conduction (48.2)

( OpenStax Unit 2and Unit 6-and 7 )

In Da Club - Membranes & Transport: Biology #5




Cellular Membranes
The Cell Membrane
Transport across membranes
Diffusion Demo
Osmoregulation

Case Study How Does Osmosis Affect Cells?

Case Study How are Water and Solute Potentials Calculated?

Know the general molecular structure and behavior of a plasma membrane and functions of membrane proteins (ECM).

Relate diffusion and osmosis to the second law of thermodynamics.

How do ion pumps maintain membrane potential? (In animals and plants)?

Why is there more than one mode of membrane transportation required?

What is "bound water" and its effect on osmotic behavior?

Why is excretion included in this unit?

Explain why ion movement is important in nerve impulses/conduction.

Lab Bench  AP Lab 1 Diffusion and Osmosis

Membrane Structure & Function
1-Cell membranes are selectively permeable due to their structure
2-Growth and dynamic homeostasis (equilibrium) are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes

Required Calculations: Y  (psi) = -iCRT (see Diffusi0n Osmosis Lab)

2- glucose transport, Na+ / K+ transport

 

9 (164-179)

required 9.1-9.5

( OpenStax Unit 2)

ATP & Respiration: Biology #7




Intro to Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis
Cellular Respiration

Positive & Negative Feedback Control (AP Essentials #18)

more on feedback control
Prezi Presentations: Enzymes, Metabolism, Cellular Resp & Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration/Fermentation: Chapter 9 (Glycolysis) (Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) and Electron Transport Chain

Case Study How Is the Rate of Cellular Respiration Measured?

Explain how energy flows through the biosphere. (Fig 9.2)

What is the structure of coenzymes and their function?

Describe the four parts of cellular respiration. (Include NAD, FAD, CoA, ATP, ADP (amounts).

How do organisms survive without oxygen available?

Diagram or explain the purpose of chemiosmosis.

Lab Bench AP Lab 5 Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration
1-All living systems require constant input of free energy
2- Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological systems

1- Kreb's cycle, glycolysis, endothermy/ectothermy, fermentation,  ETC

2-  Oxygen in cellular respiration

 

10 (186-202)

required 10.1-10.3

( OpenStax Unit 2)

Plant Cells: Biology #6

Photosynthesis: CrashCourse Biology #8




Intro to Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis: Chaper 10 (Light Reaction and Dark Reaction/Calvin Cycle)

Case Study How Is the Rate of Photosynthesis Measured? And Paper Chromatography

What is the importance of light wavelengths to photosynthesis?

Describe the two main processes of photosynthesis including the role of chemiosmosis.

Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis.

What causes photorespiration?

Why are C4 and CAM plants considered more evolved or successful than C3 plants? (know architectural or temporal differences).

Lab Bench AP Lab 4 Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis
1-All living systems require constant input of free energy
2- Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological systems

NADP+ in photosynthesis, photosystems and chlorophyll, Calvin cycle

11 (201-223)

read whole chapter

Ch 45.1 Endocrine and communication

Ch 48 Figure 48.4 Chemical Synapse  

( OpenStax Unit 2 Unit 7 )

The Nervous System - CrashCourse Biology #26 

Signal Transmision and Gene Expression
(Biology Essentials #32)
Evolutionary Significance of Cell Communication (AP Essentials #36)
Cell Communication (AP Essentials #37)
Signal Transduction (AP Essentials #38)
Effects of Changes in Signal Transduction (Essentials #39)

Chapter 11: Cell Signalling
Scitable from Nature: Essentials of Cell Biology Unit 4: Cell Communication
Prezi: Cell Communication

How Bacteria Talk to Each Other (TED talk)
Roots of Plant Intelligence TED talk

Case Study How Do Cells Communicate with Each Other?

Discuss the 3 types of inter-cell communication.

There are three main intracell signaling pathways, G-protein coupled receptors, Tyrosine-kinase receptors and second messengers (cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3); discuss all in terms of the three stages of cell signaling-reception, transduction and response (don't forget to discuss the importance of protein phosphorylation). 

Discuss the importance of cell signaling in nerve impulse transmission.

Discuss the importance of cell communication used by the endocrine system, is there any overlap with the nervous system?

What role does cell signaling play in apoptosis? When and where is apoptosis appropriate?

Cell Communication
1-Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history
2- Cell communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling
3- Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms
4- a variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression
5-Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response
6-Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response



1 & 2- chemical messengers by microbes to communicate with other nearby cells (Bonnie Bessler TED talk) quorem sensing, and population density (207), pheromones trigger reproduction and developmental pathways (211-213), Response to external signals by bacteria that influences cell movement (207, 209), Epinephrine stimulations of glycogen breakdown in mammals (209), temperature determination of gender in some vertebrates ( 999), DNA repair (318)

2-Immune cells interact by cell-cell contact, antigen-presenting cells (APCs), helper T-cells and killer T-cells. [See also 2.D.4] 208, 209, 935, 936, 937, 938, 939, 940, 941, 942, 943, 944; Plasmodesmata between plant cells that allow material to be transported from cell to cell 120, 121; Neurotransmitters; Plant immune response 845, 847, 975, 1047, 1055; Quorum sensing in bacteria 207; Morphogens in embryonic development; Insulin 986; Human growth hormone 63; Thyroid hormones; Testosterone; Estrogen 63, 214, 1009

3- circadian rhythms (838, 862, 1070, 1071), diurnal/noctural sleep/awake cycle ( 838, 1070), jet lag (862), Hiberation, estivation, and migration (872, 1119, 1136), release/reaction to pheromones (639, 1089, 1122), Visual displays (594, 595) , fruiting bodies fungi, slime mold, bacterio ( 207, 594, 637, 643-649,)

4- cytokines regulate gene expression in cell replication and division (230-2356, 254-255), mating pheromones in yeast (207), levels of cAMP in bacteria (355), SRY gene animal male development (290), Ethylene (fruit ripening)  827, 831) Yeast mating (207), Morphogens (differentiation) ( 372), Changes in p53 and cancer ( 375-6), HOX genes &  body plan development ( 446, 527)

5 & 6: G-protein linked receptors 217, 220, 221; Receptor tyrosine kinases 212; Ligand-gated ion channels 213; Second messengers, such as cyclic GMP, cyclic AMP, calcium ions (Ca2+), and inositol triphosphate (IP3) 218, 1055

 

12 (229-243) 

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 2)

Mitosis: Splitting Up is Complicated - CrashCourse Biology #12




Mitosis
Mitosis & Cell Cycle (meiosis is also included) (AP Essentials #28)

Viral Replication (AP Essentials #35)

TED Talk (Doyle) Treating Cancer with Electric Fields (Cell Cycle/Mitosis)

Case Study How much time do cells spend in Mitosis?

Describe cell cycle and mitosis' role in the cycle.

What is the relationship of the kinetochore to microtubules and centrosomes?

Describe the cell cycle control systems. (esp. cdk...)

What is the role of p53?

Contrast binary fission with mitosis.

When and where is apoptosis appropriate?

Cell Cycle & Mitosis
1-In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization
2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation

Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF) 240; Action of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) 241; Cancer results from disruptions in cell cycle control 241, 242, 243

 

13 (248-260)

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 3)

Meiosis: Where the Sex Starts - CrashCourse Biology #13




Meiosis

Essential of Genetics Unit 2 (Mitosis & Meiosis)

TED talk: Pollen Grains

How Does Meiosis Occur in the Fungus Sordaria?

Frequency of Crossing Over

Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction among the kingdoms.

Compare and contrast mitosis with meiosis.

Compare and contrast oogenesis with spermatogenesis in animals and plants.

What is the relationship between timing of meiosis and fertilization (Wolbachia)?

Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycle
1-In eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization
2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation

Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction among the kingdoms.

Compare and contrast mitosis with meiosis.

Compare and contrast oogenesis with spermatogenesis in animals and plants.

What is the relationship between timing of meiosis and fertilization (Wolbachia)?

 

14 (262-281)

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 3 )

Heredity: CrashCourse Biology #9




Preview of Genetics
Genetics-Mendel
Chromosomal Genetics
Mitosis and Meiosis Simulation   
Mendelian Genetics  (Biology Essentials #29)
Punnett Squares
Using the addition and multiplication rules to solve genetics problems

Genotypes & Phenotypes (AP Essentials #33)

NOTE: You are responsible for all Genetics Problems.  They will not be collected but you may be called on to do on class quizzes

Discuss Mendel’s laws.

What are the modes of inheritance?

Fruit flies and inheritance

How can you recognize patterns of inheritance in pedigrees?

Mendel and the Gene Idea
1-The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring
2-Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism
3-The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem

1-Sickle cell anemia 84; Tay-Sachs disease 280; Huntington’s disease 278; X-linked color blindness 291; Trisomy 21/Down syndrome 250; Klinefelter’s syndrome 298; Reproduction issues 250, 298

2-Height and weight in humans 290; Flower color based on soil pH 274; Density of plant hairs as a function of herbivory 739; Effect of adding lactose to a Lac + bacterial culture 354; Presence of the opposite mating type on pheromones production in yeast and other fungi 157; Darker fur in cooler regions of the body in certain mammal species 292; Alterations in timing of flowering due to climate changes 274

 

15 (286-302)

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 3)

x

Blood Types
Linked Genes
Pedigree Analysis
Advanced Non-Mendelian Genetics  (AP Essentials #30)
X-chromosome Inactivation
Cellular Variation (Essentials #52)
Environmental Genotype Effects (Essentials #53)

Diagnosing Genetic Diseases

NOTE: You are responsible for all Genetics Problems.  They will not be collected but you may be called on to do on class quizzes

What is the importance of crossover? Why is knowing the frequency of crossover useful? Relate cross over events to genetic variation.

Discuss genomic imprinting.

Contrast epistasis with epigenetics.

The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
1-The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot by explained by simple Medelian genetics
2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation

1-Sex-linked genes reside on sex chromosomes (X in humans) 289, 290, 992; In mammals and flies, the Y chromosome is very small and carries few genes 289, 290; In mammals and flies, females are XX and males are XY 289, 290, 992; as such, X-linked recessive traits are always expressed in males 289, 290, 992; Some traits are sex limited, and expression depends on the sex of the individual, such as milk production in female mammals and pattern baldness in males 291, 992

2-Antibiotic resistance mutations 462; Pesticide resistance mutations 397; Sickle cell disorder and heterozygote advantage 8, 854

 

16
(305-319) 

required 16.1 & 16.2

( OpenStax Unit 3-)

DNA Structure and Replication: CrashCourse Biology #10








Meselson Stahl Experiment
DNA Structure     
DNA Replication

What Is the Correct Model for DNA Replication?
 

Why are Griffith, Hershey, Chase mentioned?  (briefly describe the experiments and the implications of the results).

What role did Franklin and Chargaff play in alerting Watson and Crick to the structure of DNA?

Know the basic structure of a DNA nucleotide. Be able to tell the difference between a pyrimidine and a purine.

List the enzymes and their roles used during DNA replication.

How many different ways can mutations be generated? List and describe.

What is the role of a telomer? What is the role of telomerase?

The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information
2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation

1-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 335, 336; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397, 413; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412

2-Antibiotic resistance mutations 462; Pesticide resistance mutations 397; Sickle cell disorder and heterozygote advantage 8, 854

 

17
(325-347)

required 17.1-17.5

( OpenStax Unit 3)

DNA, Hot Pockets, & The Longest Word Ever: CrashCourse Biology #11


Transcription & Translation 

Regulation and Timing in Development(AP Essentials #24)
DNA & RNA Part I (history) (Biology Essentials #27 A)
DNA & RNA Part II (structure)(Biology Essentials #27 B)
Central Dogma: Transcription

The Beadle-Tatum Experiment

Metabolic Pathways

List the highlights of central dogma. (details of transcription and translation).

Are there any significant differences between prokaryotic (bacteria vs. archaea) and eukaryotic gene expression?

Why is alternative RNA splicing (aka exon shuffling) so important?

From Gene to Protein
1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information
2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation
3-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms

1-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 335, 336; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397, 413; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412

2-Antibiotic resistance mutations 462; Pesticide resistance mutations 397; Sickle cell disorder and heterozygote advantage 8, 854

3-Morphogenesis of fingers and toes 367, 526, 527, 528; Immune function 930, 931, 932, 933, 934; C. elegans development 1036; Flower Development 755, 756

 

19 (381-390)

required 19.1-19.2

( OpenStax Unit 5-)

x

Viral Replication (AP Essentials #35)
Viruses

What Causes Infections in AIDS Patients?

Why do AIDS rates differ across the US?

What are the basic viral components?

What are 2 viral life cycles?

How does viral transmission work? (What is the difference between transduction, conjugation, transposons.)

Discuss the evolution or devolution of virus?

Compare and contrast viruses, viroids, and prions?

How do new viruses emerge? (HINI the newest).

Viruses
1-Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts
2-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information

1-Transduction in bacteria 384, 386, 562, 563; Transposons present in incoming DNA 385, 435, 436

2-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 318; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 363, 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412

 

18 (351-373)
also (Ch. 47 1022-1042)

required 18.1-18.4

( OpenStax Unit 3-for gene expression

Unit 7for embryonic development


Unit 6- for sensory systems and responses )

x

Gene Regulation  (AP Essentials #31)
Signal Transmission and Gene Expression (AP Essentials #32)
Regulation and Timing in Development(AP Essentials #24)

Homeostasis Hugs
Cellular Specialization
Viruses
Mutations
(Development)

Prezi: Regulation of Gene Expression

How Do You Design a Gene Expression System?

What is the role of satellite DNA?

Distinguish between a repressible and inducible operon.

How and where do eukaryotes regulate gene expression?

 

What are the 4 mechanisms for transforming proto-oncogenes to oncogenes? (RAS)

 Discuss transposons and retrotransposons, why are they important?

How Can the Bicoid Gene Be Regulated to Alter Development?

Distinguish between the patterns of morphogenesis in plants and animals.

Explain the basic aspects of pattern formation.

How does apoptosis function in normal and abnormal development?

Regulation of Gene Expression
1- Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization
2-A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression
3-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms

1-Promoters 332, 333, 353, 354, 355; Terminators 332; Enhancers 360, 361

2-Cytokines regulate gene expression to allow for cell replication and division 230, 233, 254-255; Mating pheromones in yeast trigger mating gene expression 207; Levels of cAMP regulate metabolic gene expression in bacteria; Expression of the SRY gene triggers the male sexual development pathway in animals 290, 1010; Ethylene levels cause changes in the production of different enzymes, allowing fruits to ripen 208, 827, 833; Seed germination and gibberellin 827, 831; Mating pheromones in yeast trigger mating genes expression and sexual reproduction 207; Morphogens stimulate cell differentiation and development 372; Changes in p53 activity can result in cancer 375, 376; HOX genes and their role in development 446, 527

3-Morphogenesis of fingers and toes 367, 526, 527, 528; Immune function 930, 931, 932, 933, 934; C. elegans development 1036; Flower Development 755, 756

 

20 (396-412)

required 20.2

( OpenStax Unit 3)

x

 Biotechnology: Molecular Biology

Prezi: Biotechnology

TED talk: Printing a Human Kidney

Antibiotic Plasmids transforming E. coli

Using Electrophoresis to analyze DNA

List the major uses of biotechnology and how they work.

 (cDNA libraries, SNP, recombinant DNA, PCR, cloning, electrophoresis)

Biotechnology
1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information
2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation

1 & 2:-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 318; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 363, 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397; Transgenic animals 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412

 

21  (21. 6 will be covered next semester during evolution)
(429-432, 438-442)

required 21.2-21.5

( OpenStax Unit 3-)

x

Phylogenetics (AP Essentials #6)

TED talks: tracking ancient disease in,,,,plaque (dental)

Compare and contrast genomics with bioinformatics.

What is shotgun sequencing?

Is there a linear relationship between genome size and the number of genes?

Is there a relationship the amount of non-coding DNA and gene density?

How many different types of non-coding DNA are known, what is their origin or function? (for example: how do transposable elements contribute to genomic evolution?)

 How are multigene families of identical genes advantageous?

What is the evolutionary advantage of duplicated: genes, gene regions, exons,   chromosomes and exon shuffling?

What can be extrapolated from genomic comparisons? (bioinformatics)

How do we know that the HOX and FOX genes are very old and conserved in the animal kingdom?

Genomes and Their Evolution
1-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation
2-Variations in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions

Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze genomes and their functions

Antibiotic resistance mutations 462; Pesticide resistance mutations 397; Sickle cell disorder and heterozygote advantage 8, 854

2-
Different types of phospholipids in cell membranes 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 76, 77, 99, 126, 127, 128, 129; Different types of hemoglobin 83, 84, 437, 440, 912, 924; MHC proteins 937; Chlorophylls 186, 188, 190, 191, 192; Molecular diversity of antibodies in response to an antigen 935, 936, 937, 938, 941, 942; The antifreeze gene in fish 128

22 (455-467)

required 22.2-22.3

( OpenStax Unit 4-)

Natural Selection - CrashCourse Biology #14





Speciation: Of Ligers & Men - CrashCourse Biology #15




Evidence for Evolution
Evolution & Natural Selection (AP Essentials #1)

Scientific Evidence for Evolution (AP Essentials #4)
  (Examples of Natural Selection) (AP Essentials #2)
Mechanisms that Increase Variation (AP Essentials #34)
 

TED talk: Camels the SUV of the desert

How Do Environmental Changes Affect a Population?

Patterns of Antibiotic Resistance

List the major contributors to evolutionary theory and one finding for each.

Compare the following using examples: survival of the fittest, natural selection, adaptation, and descent with modification.

Summarize the evidence supporting Dr. Endler's conclusions in Inquiry 22.13 (on guppies). How does this evidence support Darwinian evolution?

List all the difference types of evidence for Darwinian evolution.

Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
1-Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution

2-Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics

1-Graphical analysis of allele frequencies in a population 457, 458, 459, 460, 474; Application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation 475

2-Graphical analyses of allele frequencies in a population; 457, 458, 459, 460, 474; Analysis of sequence data sets 541; Analysis of phylogenetic trees 538, 539, 540; Construction of phylogenetic trees based on sequence data 542, 543, 544, 545, 546, 547

 

23 (469-485)

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 4 )

Evolutionary Development: Chicken Teeth - CrashCourse Biology #17





Population Genetics: When Darwin Met Mendel - CrashCourse Biology #18











Evolution: It’s a Thing - CrashCourse Biology #20




Hardy Weinberg
Solving Hardy Weinberg Equations


Population Variation (Essentials #54)
Cellular Variation (Essentials #52)
Environmental Genotype Effects (Essentials #53)
Genetic Drift (AP Essentials #3)
Microevolution


Prezi 2: Evolutionary Forces
Prezi 3: Evidence of Evolution
Prezi 4: Measuring Evolution
Prezi 5: Speciation

How Can Frequency of Alleles be Calculated?

Explain the Hardy-Weinberg theorem. (know the significance of p, q, 2pq, p2, q2

What is "selfish" DNA?

Distinguish between stabilizing, directional and disruptive (diversifying) selection. Relate to allele frequency and relative fitness.

What is the relationship between, genetic drift, bottleneck effect (event), founder's effect, and gene flow.

What is heterozygote advantage and why is it considered "preserving genetic variation"?

Discuss why a predominant allele may lead to a decline in fitness? (hint: monocultures).

Why can't natural selection craft a "perfect" organism?

The Evolution of Populations
1-Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations

2-The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics

3-Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution

4-diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem

5-Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes

6-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation

Required Calculations: Hardy Weinberg problems (see Appendix A)

1-Flowering time in relation to global climate change 201, 839, 840; Sickle cell Anemia 84, 406, 484; DDT resistance in insects 470; Artificial selection 459; Loss of genetic diversity within a crop species 459 815; Overuse of antibiotics 462

2-Graphical analysis of allele frequencies in a population 457, 458, 459, 460, 474; Application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation 475

3-Prairie chickens 478; Potato blight causing the potato famine 588; Corn rust affects on agricultural crops 650; Not all individuals in a population in a disease outbreak are equally affected 470; some may not show symptoms, some may have mild symptoms, or some may be naturally immune and resistant to the disease 471

6-Antibiotic resistance mutations 462; Pesticide resistance mutations 397; Sickle cell disorder and heterozygote advantage 8, 854

 

24 (488-504)

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 4)

Taxonomy: Life’s Filing System - CrashCourse Biology #19

Speciation and Extinction  (AP  Essentials #7)
Speciation & Reproductive Isolation (AP Essentials #8)
Red Queen Hypothesis & Population Evolution
(AP Essentials #9)
Homeostasis Mechanisms Reflect Evolution
(AP Essentials #21)
Behavior and Natural Selection (AP Essentials #26)

How Do New Species Arise Via Genetic Isolation?
What are the advantages and disadvantages  of the "biological species concept"?

Distinguish between pre- and post-zygotic barriers.Why are many hybrids sterile?

Contrast allo- and sympatric speciation.

What is the role of a hybrid zone?

How is polyploidy advantageous to plants?

What role does sexual selection play in promoting speciation? (see Inquiry 24.12)

Compare punctuated equilibrium with gradualism.

What is the difference between micro- and macroevolution?

The Origin of Species
1-Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated

2-timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms

3-Populations of organisms continue to evolve

4-Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth's history

2-Circadian rhythms, or the physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotes and persists even in the absence of external cues 207, 208, 838, 839, 1071; Diurnal/nocturnal and sleep/awake cycles 209, 838, 840, 1070; Jet lag in humans 209, 839; Seasonal responses, such as hibernation, estivation, and migration 835, 836, 837, 872, 1089, 1119, 1136; Release and reaction to pheromones 639, 1089, 1122; Visual displays in the reproductive cycle, 594, 595; Fruiting body formation in fungi, slime molds and certain types of bacteria 207, 594, 595, 637, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 649; Quorum sensing in bacteria 207

3-Chemical resistance (mutations for resistance to antibiotics, pesticides, herbicides or chemotherapy drugs occur in the absence of the chemical 344, 345); Emergent diseases; Observed directional phenotypic change in a population (Grants’ observations of Darwin’s finches in the Galapagos) 469; A eukaryotic example that describes evolution of a Structure or process such as heart chambers, limbs, the brain and the immune system 511, 517, 518

4-Five major extinctions 521, 522, 523; Human impact on ecosystems and species extinction rates 1205, 1245

26 (537-548; 551-553 AND 

Ch 34.8 Origin of Primates and Man 728-733)

required 26.1, 26.3, 26.5

and 34.8

( OpenStax Unit 4 and Unit 5)

Animal Development: We’re Just Tubes - CrashCourse Biology #16

Phylogenetics (AP Essentials #6)
Cladograms


TED Talk: Human & Neanderthals Share DNA

TED talk: Louise Leakey Human Origins

How is Phylogeny Determined Using Protein Comparisons?

List the major taxonomic categories from most to least inclusive.

Distinguish between analogous and homologous structures.

Distinguish between mono-, para- and polyphyletic grouping.

What is a natural taxon?

Distinguish between a shared ancestral character (trait) and a shared derived character (trait) used in a cladogram or phylogenetic tree.

Summary principle of maximum parsimony (see Fig 26.15).

How does molecular biology support evolutionary theory?

What is a molecular clock?

What is the current tree of life? Is it now a ring? Explain the mechanism of horizontal gene transfer what other mechanism can support the "ring" structure for the tree of life?

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life
1-Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested

2-Scientific evidence from many different disciplines supports models of the origin of life

1-Number of heart chambers in animals 678, 679, 682, 687, 688, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903; Opposable thumbs 742, 746; Absence of legs in some sea mammals 725

 

25 (507-529)

25.1, 25.3-25.5

( OpenStax Unit 5 )

x

Origin of Life on Earth  (AP Essentials #11)
Abiogenesis (creation of life from non-organic source)

Radiocarbon dating

TED talk the line between life and not life

How Might Conditions on Early Earth Have Created Life?

 What are the contributions of Oparin, Haldane, Miller, and Urey towards understanding abiotic synthesis?

 Provide plausible evidence to support the four stages of life’s origin.

What needed to be present in order for free oxygen to be available in the atmosphere?

Explain how eukaryotes may have evolved?

What evidence is available in the rock record to support macroevolution?

The History of Life on Earth
1-Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today

2-There are several hypotheses about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting evidence

3--Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics

4-Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth's history

5-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms

6-Interaction between and within populations influence patterns of species distribution and abundance


1-Cytoskeleton (a network of structural proteins that facilitate cell movement, morphological integrity and organelle transport) 100, 101, 112, 113, 116; Membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria and/or chloroplasts) 100, 101, 109, 110, 111; Linear chromosomes 229, 230, 232-233; Endomembrane systems, including the nuclear envelope 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109

4-Five major extinctions 521, 522, 523; Human impact on ecosystems and species extinction rates 1205, 1245

5-Morphogenesis of fingers and toes 367, 526, 527, 528; Immune function 930, 931, 932, 933, 934; C. elegans development 1036; Flower Development 755, 756

 

27 (556-564)

required 27.1-27.2

( OpenStax Unit 5- and Unit 2- )

What are the Modes of Nutrition in Prokaryotes? 


Charactistics of Life  (AP Biology Essentials #5)
Three Domains of Life
Life on Earth Archaea
Life on Earth Bacteria

Distinguish Achaean bacteria from true Bacteria.

Nutrition in Prokaryotes

What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?

Why are gram-negative bacteria more pathogenic than gram-positive bacteria?

Compare methods of genetic recombination in bacteria (transformation, transduction, conjugation, and plasmids).

Discuss the different nutritional modes (Fig 27.1).

What are the major differences between the 3 domains. Summarize Table 27.2.

What is the significance of proteobacteria and cyanobacteria?

What are the major roles of prokaryotes in the biosphere?

Bacteria and Archaea
1-DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information

2-Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation

1-Addition of a poly-A tail 334, 335; Addition of a GTP cap 211; Excision of introns 318; Enzymatic reactions 319; Transport by proteins 307; Synthesis 314, 315, 316, 317; Degradation 363, 364; Electrophoresis 405; Plasmid-based transformation 306, 399; Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA 398; Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) 404 409; Genetically modified foods 397; Transgenic animals 331, 419; Cloned animals 397, 399, 400, 402 413, 414; Pharmaceuticals, such as human insulin or factor X 412

 

28 (575-577)

required 28.1

( OpenStax Unit 5 )

x


Protists

What Kind of Protists are Found in Various Habitats? 

What are the models of eukaryotic origin? (Fig 28.2)

x

x

 

29 (600-606)

( OpenStax Unit 5)


Plants Overview
Intro to Plant Diversity

What Are the Different Stages of a Fern Life Cycle? 

What characteristics distinguish plants from the other kingdoms? What are the four major periods of plant evolution on land? What evidence is there to support green algae as the ancestor of land plants?

x

x

 

30 (optional)

( OpenStax Unit 5 )

x

xHow Are Trees Identified by Their Leaves?
 

What are the traits that are required for a plant to be entirely terrestrial?  How are the seeds of a pine different from an angiosperm seed, are there any advantages to being an angiosperm? What are some current theories on how flowering plants may have evolved?

x

x

 

31 (optional)

required 31.1

( OpenStax Unit 5)

x

xHow Does the Fungus Pilobolus Succeed as a Decomposer?
 

What characteristics distinguish fungi from other kingdoms? Describe the basic body plan of a fungus. What is a lichen? Why are mycorrhizae beneficial to both plant and fungus?

x

x

 

32 (654-656)

33 (692-694)

21.6 (442-447)

( OpenStax Unit 4-)

x

Animals

How do Molecular Data Fit Traditional Phylogenies?


How Are Insect Species Identified? 

(32)What characteristics distinguish animals from the other kingdoms? Outline the major phylogenetic branches of the animal kingdom, identify the "benchmark" characteristics. Compare and contrast two hypothesis about animal origins from unicellular ancestors (syncytial hypothesis and colonial hypothesis). (33)  Why are echinoderms on the same line as vertebrates?

x

x

 

34
(728-733)

( OpenStax Unit 5- )

x

Prezi 4: Biodiversity: Chordates

How Does Bone Structure Shed Light on the Origin of Birds?

What are the unique characteristics of chordates? What are the specialized characteristics of vertebrates? What evidence supports that amphibians evolved from crossopterygians? Why did mammals undergo adaptive radiation during the Cenozoic? 

x

x

 

35 (optional)

( OpenStax Unit 5-)

x

X What Are Functions of Monocot Tissues? 

List the characteristics of angiosperms (monocots/ dicots). Distinguish between parenchms, collenchyma and sclerenchyma. Distinquish between xylem and phloem tissues.Describe the function of dermal, vascular and ground tissue systems. Identify the differences between roots and shoot vascular tissue. How does wood form?

x

x

 

36 (see Chapter 7 assignment also for Transpiration Lab)

( OpenStax Unit 6-)

x

Plant Structure
Plant Nutrition and Transport

Rates of Transpiration

List the three levels in which transport in plants occurs, describe the role of aquaporins. Trace the path of water and minerals from root to shoot. How is the proton pump involved in mineral transport, how are solutes transferred between symplast and apoplast.Using the transpiration-cohesion-adhesion theory describe how xylem sap can be pulled upward. What are the disadvantages and advantages of transpiration? Explain how pholem sap flows from source to sink.

x

x

 

37 (optional)

( OpenStax Unit 5- )

x

How Does Acid Precipitation Affect Mineral Deficiency?

 What are the nine micronutrients and seven micronutrients. required for plants, why are they important? Why do farmers need to manage their soils and "natural" systems don't? Distinguish between nitrogen fixing and nitrifying bacteria. Discuss the two functions of leghemoglobin and why is its synthesis evidence for coevolution. What is the relationship between root nodule formation and mycorrhizae development.

x

x

 

38 (801-811)

required 38.1

( OpenStax Unit 6- )

x


Mechanisms of Timing & Control (Plants/Animals/Bacteria)


Plant Reproduction & Development Part I Structure and Fertilization (Gremski)
Plant Repro & Dev Part II Pollinators & Angiosperms (Gremski)
Plant Repro & Dev Part III:  Alternation of  Generations (Gremski)
Plant Repro & Dev Part IV: Double Fertilization (Gremski)
Plant Repro & Dev Part V: Comparing Plant & Animal Development (Gremski)

What Tells Desert Seeds When to Germinate?
Distinquish between; complete/incomplete, perfect/imperfect flowers, and monoecious and dioecious plants. List the structure of a seed and identify a function for each. Distinguish between vegetative and sexual reproduction ,how are each adaptive strategies? How are organ identity genes involved in pattern formation in flowers?

Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology
1-Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms
2-timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms

1-Morphogenesis of fingers and toes 367, 526, 527, 528; Immune function 930, 931, 932, 933, 934; C. elegans development 1036; Flower Development 755, 756

2-Circadian rhythms, or the physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotes and persists even in the absence of external cues 207, 208, 838, 839; Diurnal/nocturnal and sleep/awake cycles 209, 838, 840, 1070; Jet lag in humans 209, 839; Seasonal responses, such as hibernation, estivation, and migration 835, 836, 837, 872, 1089, 1119, 1136; Release and reaction to pheromones 639, 1089, 1122; Visual displays in the reproductive cycle, 594, 595; Fruiting body formation in fungi, slime molds and certain types of bacteria 207, 594, 595, 637, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 649; Quorum sensing in bacteria 207

 

39 (821-841; 845-847) associated with  45  Endrocrine)

required 39.1-39.3

( OpenStax Unit 6-)


Plant Control (hormones)
Plant and Animal Defense  (AP Essentials #23)

Prezi: Feedback Responses (Animals/Plants)

What Plant Hormones Affect Organ Formation?
 

List the five classes of plant hormones, describe their major functions and where are they primarily produced. Define the types of tropisms, how are they triggered, by whom? Define photoperiodism, describe the differences between; short, lond and day neutral plants. Explain the molecular basis of resistance to non-virulent and virulent pathogens.

Plant Responses to Internal and External
1-timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms

2-Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis

1- Fruiting body formation in fungi, slime molds and certain types of bacteria 207, 594, 595, 637, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 649; Quorum sensing in bacteria 207
Availability of resources leading to fruiting body formation in fungi and certain types of bacteria 638, 639, 640, 649, 793, 794, 795; Niche and resource partitioning 1195, 1196; Mutualistic relationships (lichens; bacteria in digestive tracts of animals 797, 1199; and mycorrhizae) 571; Biology of pollination 572, 624, 625, 626, 627, 637, 645, 646, 647, 806, 807

2-Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific response mechanisms, but they lack pathogen-specific defense responses 845; Plant defenses against pathogens include molecular recognition systems with systemic responses; 847; infection triggers chemical responses that destroy infected and adjacent cells, thus localizing the effects 847; Vertebrate immune systems have nonspecific and nonheritable defense mechanisms against pathogens 934

 

40 (852- 872)

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 7)

x

Anatomy & Physiology
Elements of a Feedback Loop
Positive & Negative Feedback Control (AP Essentials #18)
Homeostasis Hugs
Homeostatic Loops
Cooperative Interactions (Essentials #49)
Organ Systems (Essentials #45)

Prezi: Intro/Homeostasis
Prezi: Feedback Responses (Animals/Plants)

How Does Temperature Affect Metabolic Rate in Daphnia?
 

 List the types of tissues, relate their structure to their function. How do large animals deal with low surface area to volume? Define homeostasis. Give an example of positive and negative feedback.
 

Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
1-All living systems require constant input of free energy

2-Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter

3-Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes

4-Homeostatic mechanism reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments

5-Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostatis

6-Organisms respond to changes in their external environment

1- Endothermy (the use of thermal energy generated by metabolism to maintain homeostatic body temperatures) 147, 149, 167, 168, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868; Ectothermy (the use of external thermal energy to help regulate and maintain body temperature) 147, 148, 149, 165- 168, 863- 868
2-Exchange of gases 854, 897, 898, 916, 917, 918, 919, 921, 923, 924, 925; Circulation of fluids 107, 108, 853, 854, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903, 908; Digestion of food 107, 854, 880, 882, 883, 885, 887, 890; Excretion of wastes 108, 854, 898;

3-Operons in gene regulation 353, 354, 355; Temperature regulation in animals 860; Plant responses to water limitations 779; Lactation in mammals 1015; Onset of labor in childbirth 1014, 1015; Ripening of fruit 626, 627; Diabetes mellitus in response to decreased insulin; 982; Dehydration in response to decreased antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 969; Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism) 987; Blood clotting 912

4-Gas exchange in aquatic and terrestrial plants 1229; Digestive mechanisms in animals such as food vacuoles, gastrovascular cavities, one-way digestive systems 80, 881-883, 885-890; Respiratory systems of aquatic and terrestrial animals 916, 91-919, 921-923, 925; Nitrogenous waste production and elimination in aquatic and terrestrial animals 958, 959, 961; Excretory systems in flatworms, earthworms and vertebrates 8 960, 962-963, 964, 966; Osmoregulation in bacteria, fish and protests 133-135, 953, 955-957; Osmoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial plants 133, 134, 135; Circulatory systems in fish, amphibians and mammals 899, 900, 901- 905, 908, 909; Thermoregulation in aquatic and terrestrial animals (countercurrent exchange mechanisms) 863-868

5 & 6-Physiological responses to toxic substances 1256, 1257; Dehydration; Immunological responses to pathogens, toxins, and allergens; Invasive and/or eruptive species 1242; Human impact 1239, 1240, 1243, 1244, 1254-1256, 1259; Hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, and fires 1153-1156; Water limitation 793, 794, 795; Salination 793-795;

 

41 (optional)

( OpenStax Unit 7 )

x

xWhat Role does Amylase Play in Digestion?
 

List the major feeding mechanisms and give an example organism. List the major digestive enzymes and where they are found, what they do. Explain the importance of folds, villi and microvilli.

x

x

 

42 (optional)

( OpenStax )

x

xHow is Cardiovascular Fitness Measured? (read only) 

Distinquish between an open and closed circulatory system. List the components of a vertebrate cardiovascular system. Describe the components and functions of the lymphatic system. What is a Hb-dissociation curve, why does it have this shape, relate it to oxygen affinity.

x

x

 

43 (930-950)

read whole chapter

( OpenStax Unit 7)

x


Immune System
Plant and Animal Defense

Evolutionary Significance of Cell Communication (AP Essentials #36)

Prezi: Immunity
TED talks: tracking ancient disease in,,,,plaque (dental)

Why Do AIDS Rates Differ?

What causes AIDS?


Discuss the differences between non-specific defense and specific immunity. List the participants in specific immunity and their function (cellular and humoral, include any molecules) Explain how autoimmune disorders arise?

Immune System
1-Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis

1-Invertebrate immune systems have nonspecific response mechanisms, but they lack pathogen-specific defense responses 845; Plant defenses against pathogens include molecular recognition systems with systemic responses; 847; infection triggers chemical responses that destroy infected and adjacent cells, thus localizing the effects 847; Vertebrate immune systems have nonspecific and nonheritable defense mechanisms against pathogens 934

 

44 (see  chapter 7)

( OpenStax Unit 7)

x

xWhat Affects Urine Production?

What is the structure and function of the kidney. Compare and contrast the different ways of excretion throughout the animal kingdom.

x

x

 

45 (975-984)(also includes parts of Chapter  39 on plant hormones)

required 45.1-45.2

( OpenStax Unit 7 )

x

Circulatory System
Endocrine System & Hormones

Prezi: Endocrine/Hormonal

Flight or Fight Response
Evolutionary Significance of Cell Communication (AP Essentials #36)

How Do Thyroxine and TSH Affect Metabolism?  List the glands and their hormones. Discuss one complete feedback system of the endocrine system (except thyroid).

Hormones and the Endocrine System
1-A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression

2-Cell communicate with each other through direct contact with other cells or from a distance via chemical signaling

3-Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history

4-Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes

1-Cytokines regulate gene expression to allow for cell replication and division 230, 233, 254-255; Expression of the SRY gene triggers the male sexual development pathway in animals 290, 1010;
 2- Plant immune response 845, 847, 975, 1047, 1055;  Insulin 986; Human growth hormone 63; Thyroid hormones; Testosterone; Estrogen 63, 214, 1009

3- Use of pheromones to trigger reproduction and developmental pathways 211, 212, 213; Epinephrine stimulation of glycogen breakdown in mammals 209; Temperature determination of sex in some vertebrate organisms 999; 

4-Operons in gene regulation 353, 354, 355; Temperature regulation in animals 860; Plant responses to water limitations 779; Lactation in mammals 1015; Onset of labor in childbirth 1014, 1015; Ripening of fruit 626, 627; Diabetes mellitus in response to decreased insulin; 982; Dehydration in response to decreased antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 969; Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism) 987; Blood clotting 912

 

46 (optional)

( OpenStax Unit 7 )

x

xWhat Might Obstruct the Male Urethra?

Describe the various means of reproduction. (which is best, when?) Describe the endocrine control of  human reproduction.

x

x

 

47 (1022-1042 see chapter 18)

required 47.3

( OpenStax Unit 7)

Animal Development: We’re Just Tubes - CrashCourse Biology #16




Prezi: Development

What Determines Cell Differentiation in the Sea Urchin?

Describe the various stages of development. What are the major genes of development?

x

x

 

48 & 49 (1045-1060; 1067-1072)

Required all of 48 and 49.2

( OpenStax Unit 7)

The Nervous System - CrashCourse Biology #26




Nervous Systems-Brain & Neurons (Essentials #41)

Sensory Systems

Response to External Environments(AP Essentials #19)

Evolutionary Significance of Cell Communication (AP Essentials #36)

Prezi: Neurons (Nervous Sys)
Prezi: Sensory (integration/response)

What Triggers Nerve Impulses?

Do an overview of the parts of nervous systems in humans. What are IPSP and EPSP? What is their importance?

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling & Nervous System
1-Animals have nervous systems that detest external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information, and produce responses

2-Organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts

1-Acetylcholine 1058; Epinephrine 986, 991; Norepinephrine 991, 1058; Dopamine 1058; Serotonin 1059; GABA 1058; Vision Hearing 1069, 1070, 1074, 1095, 1096-1097, 1098, 1099, 1100, 1101; Muscle movement 1064, 1104, 1105, 1108, 1110, 1111; Abstract thought and emotions 1071; Neuro-hormone production 975, 985; Forebrain (cerebrum), midbrain (brainstem), and hindbrain (cerebellum) 1068-1069; Right and left cerebral hemispheres in humans 1070, 1074

2-Stomach and small intestines, 884, 885, 886, 887, 888; Kidney and bladder 962, 963, 964 969; Root, stem and leaf 773, 774, 775; Respiratory and circulatory 780, 781; Nervous and muscular 1104, 1105, 1108, 1110, 1111; Plant vascular and leaf 765, 769, 770, 771

 

50 (optional)

( OpenStax Unit 7)

x

How Does Electrical Stimuli Affect Muscle Contraction?

Describe and compare/contrast the various types of receptor cells.
 

x

x