Biology Focus Questions (BFQ): Chapter 12: Read the assigned chapter sections and then answer the Q's in your notebook/journal. Note later sections are located below.


1. Summarize the relationship between genes and DNA.

2. Describe, draw, and label the basic structure of DNA. (What is meant by a double helix and anti-parallel? How many different types of DNA nucleotides exist? How are they different?)

3. What did Griffith do? What did his experiments demonstrate?

4. What did Avery do? What did his experiments demonstrate?

5. What did the Hershey Chase experiment reveal?

6. What did Chargaff, Franklin, Watson and Crick, and Gilbert contribute to our understanding of DNA?


1. Summarize the events of DNA replication AND draw and label the phases. (List the enzymes and their functions).

2. What is the relationship between the DNA molecule and chromosome structure. What is the importance of histone proteins to chromatin in eukaryotic DNA?

3. What is the relative shape and size difference between prokaryote and eukaryote DNA molecules?


1. How does RNA differ from DNA?

2. Draw both a RNA and DNA nucleotide; point out and label the differences.

3. Name the 3 main types of RNA and their functions.

4. Describe the difference between transcription in a prokaryote and a eukaryote. List and explain the functions of any structures and enzymes used during transcription. What is the purpose of a promoter?

5. How is RNA edited? Why is it necessary to “edit” RNA?

6. What is the “genetic code”? How many nucleotides are required to translate the “genetic code” into something meaningful?

7. Summarize translation in words and diagrams. List and explain the functions of any structures and enzymes used during translation (codon, anticodon, etc.)

8. What is the relationship between genes and proteins? Explain what Crick meant by “central dogma”.

9. What would the following mRNA transcript translate to? 



1. Contrast gene mutations with chromosome mutations.

2. Draw the different types of mutations.

3. Name the different ways (causes) mutation can arise.


1. Describe the parts of a gene (operon) in a prokaryote.

2. How are lac genes turned off in a prokaryote?

3. How are eukaryotic genes turned off and on (regulated)?

4. Why aren’t all genes available to be on or off all the time?

5. Relate gene regulation to development of an organism? (HOX genes and differentiation).