BFQ Chapter 2  (scroll down to find all sections) Key Vocabulary  Key Concept


  1. How did the atom gets its name?
  2. Complete the data table for atoms:

Subatomic Particle


Location in Atom









  electron cloud, orbital, energy level

  1. Draw and label an atom
  2. Why are atoms neutral in charge?
  3. What is an element? 
  4. How is an element represented?  Look at Appendix G, what are the symbols for potassium, nitrogen, sulfur, and gold?
  5. Look up the prefix iso-.  What is its meaning?
  6. Regarding subatomic particles, how are isotopes of an element different?  How are they the same?
  7. What are three uses of radioactive isotopes?
  8. How is an element different than a chemical compound?
  9. The chemical formula for water is H2O.  In one chemical compound of water, how many hydrogen atoms are there?  How do you know this?  How many atoms of oxygen are there?  How do you know this?
  10.  What is the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond?
  11.  If an atom has an atomic number of 13, it has 13 protons and 13 electrons.  What is its charge?
  12.  Referring to Q 13, if that atom loses an electron, what is its charge? 
  13.   How does an ionic bond form?
  14.  What is a covalent bond? 
  15.  What are two ways to define molecule?
  16.  What are Van der Waal’s forces and where are they found?
  17.  How do Van der Waal’s forces keep a gecko from falling from a ceiling?


  1. Why is it important to know about water when studying Biology?
  2. In a water molecule, which atom “pulls” electrons closer to it? 
  3. How is a water molecule similar to a magnet?
  4. Which atom has a slightly negative charge in a water molecule?  Which one has a slightly positive charge? Why is this condition referred to as a "polar" covalent bond?
  5. How do hydrogen bonds occur between water molecules?
  6. Do H-bonds (hydrogen bonds) form between atoms on the SAME water molecule or atoms on DIFFERENT water molecules?
  7. What is it called when water molecules are attracted to each other? (cohesion or adhesion)
  8. What is it called when water molecules are attracted to a substance other than water such as glass? (cohesion or adhesion)
  9. What is a mixture?
  10. What does the definition of mixture mean when it says: “not chemically combined?”
  11. Identify the following statements as referring to either solution or suspension, or both:
    1. Material does not dissolve
    2. Material does dissolve
    3. Material is called a solute (define solute: )
    4. Substance is called a solvent (define solvent:  )
    5. Blood
    6. Substance is evenly distributed throughout
    7. If the movement of water molecules stops, then the particles will settle
    8. Water’s polarity is responsible


  1. What are the two ions that a water molecule can split to form?  Be sure to list their charges.
  2. What does it mean to say that water is neutral pH?
  3. What does the pH scale ACTUALLY measure (don’t say how acidic or basic something is)
  4. Chemically speaking, what is an acid?
  5. Chemically speaking, what is a base?
  6. What is a buffer?
  7.  How do buffers help living organisms maintain homeostasis?

Chpt 2.3 Focus Q’s 

  1. What do you think Biomolecule means?
  2. What is organic chemistry?
  3. What are two reasons scientists study carbon?
  4. Why is carbon considered such a unique element?
  5. What does macro mean?  What are macromolecules?
  6. What is polymerization? 
  7. What does the prefix mono- mean?  What does the prefix poly- mean?
  8. What is the relationship between monomers and polymers?
  9. Give an analogy for that relationship.  For ex: a monomer is like a single pearl and the corresponding polymer is like many single pearls linked together into a pearl necklace.
  10. Are all the monomers in a polymer the exact same?  Can they be?
  11. Complete the following data table on the four types of organic compounds:


Type of Biomolecule.  Describe the elements it has

Monomer (draw)

Polymer (use symbols to draw)

Uses (there may be more than one)

Other questions for each type of biomolc

1. Carbohydrates




What is the name for the starch that animals store?



 How do plants store starch?




What is cellulose?  Where would it be found?









2. Lipids

There are two:



What does saturated refer to?









What does unsaturated refer to?






Covalent bonds contain energy that is released when the bond is broken.  Look at Figure 2-14.  Why do you think fats have so much energy stored in them?









3. Nucleic Acids

  There are two kinds

There are two kinds:


Where is DNA located in a cell? Where is RNA found?











4. Proteins

  There are 20 different ones

  Poly ________ or Poly_________


Why are proteins so diverse?





What portion of the amino acid is different from each other?




Describe some R-group characteristics.






What controls the order of amino acids in a protein?






  1. Read about the four levels of protein organization.  Describe an analogy for each.


  1. What are the different types of bonds hold a protein structure together?


Chapter 2.4 Focus Questions

1. What is a chemical reaction? Write a chemical reaction and label the reactants and products. Where is energy stored in a molecule? What happens to chemical bonds during chemical reactions?

2. What is an energy diagrams: draw and explain each type (energy absorbing- endergonic or endothermic and energy-releasing -exergonic or exothermic).

3. What type of energy helps start chemical reactions? Why is it good that most chemical reactions are NOT spontaneous?

4.  What is the relationship between a catalyst and an enzyme? 

5. What is the purpose of a catalyst/enzyme? What is the active site? A substrate? Explain the lock and key hypothesis.  (substrates, activation energy, active/binding sites, lock and key hypothesis).

6. Make a drawing showing the progression of an enzyme putting together two substrates.  If these substrates are monomers, what reaction is taking place and what is the by-product of that reaction?  Be sure to label your drawings and explain what's happening in each drawing.

7. How does a catalyst/enzyme reduce activation energy requirements? Make a diagram showing how the enzyme affects energy requirements for chemical reactions.

8. Why is it essential for enzymes to be present in a living organism? What would be the consequence if there were no enzymes available to a living organism?

9. Name all the ways that the efficiency of an enzyme can be helped or hindered.

10. Why is it important that enzymes be turned off or on?

11. What is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics? What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics? What is the relationship between these 2 laws and section 2.4? (you may need to look online or at lecture notes to answer this last question).

12. Name the different types of of energy available in the universe. What type of energy is used in chemical reactions?