Biology Focus Questions Chapter  9

 9.1

  1. Cells do a slow burn of glucose…what does that mean?
  2. Look up the prefix “glycol-“ and the suffix “lysis”.  What do each of them mean?  How does this relate to the chemical pathway that occurs during glycolysis?
  3. When oxygen is present, what follows glycolysis?
  4. What is cellular respiration and does it require oxygen gas?
  5. What is the formula for cell respiration?
  6. What would happen if cell respiration took place in one step?
  7. Look at figure 9-2, where does each of the three steps in cell respiration take place?
  8. Look at figure 9-2; is ATP made at each step?
  9. What is glycolysis? 
  10. Read about ATP production on page 223; describe the ATP input, output, and net gain in glycolysis.
  11. What is NAD+? 
  12. What are two advantages of glycolysis?
  13. What is the problem with a cell generating ATP in large amounts from glycolysis?
  14. When oxygen is not present, what process follows glycolysis?
  15. What happens during fermentation in regards to NADH?  What does this process accomplish?
  16. Why is fermentation considered an anaerobic process?
  17. What organisms undergo alcoholic fermentation?
  18. What are the products of alcoholic fermentation?
  19. What are the products of lactic acid fermentation?
  20.  What types of organisms undergo lactic acid fermentation?
  21. How are alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation similar to each other?

9.2

1. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

2. How are cell respiration and respiration (breathing) related?

3.  During the Kreb's cycle, what happens to all the carbon in pyruvic acid?

4.  Why is the Kreb's cycle called an electron harvesting reaction?

5.  Where in the cell does the Kreb's cycle take place?

6.  During the Kreb's cycle, is ATP made?

7.  Look at diagram 9-7.  Explain what happens to the e- in the ETC.

8.  Look at diagram 9-7.  Where does the energy come from to pump the H+ through the inner membrane?

9.  Look at diagram 9-7.  How is the ATP synthesized?  What enzyme is responsible for this?  How is this facilitated diffusion?

10. How are the totals for ATP production different between fermentation and cell respiration?

11.  What other sources of "food" provide the fuel for producing ATP?

12.  Not all the energy in a glucose molecule gets trapped in ATP; what happens to the rest?

13.  How do our cells provide energy in a hurry?

14.  What is an oxygen debt and how does it relate to lactic acid fermentation?

15.  How does your body produce energy over a longer period of time (what is the involvement of glycogen, fats, and other stored molecules?)?

16.  How do photosynthesis and cell respiration compare to each other?  Explain!!