Evolution Unit Test Study Guide

1. Darwin's voyage, observations

2. Other scientists who influenced  Darwin (Hutton, Lyell, Mathus, Lamarck)

3. Major differences between Lamarck and Darwin's theories of evolution.

4. Definitions of inheritance of natural variations, inheritance of acquired characteristics, natural selection, survival of the fittest.

5. Why did Darwin finally decide to publish " On Origin of Species"?

6. What is the difference between natural and artificial selection?

7. Why do individual's with the best adaptations survive?

8. What is an adaptation (in evolutionary terms)?

9. What is a vestigial structure? What are some examples used in the textbook?

10. Why would different organisms have similar looking larvae?

11. How was the fossil record important to Darwin?

12. How are members of a population similar, what do they all have in common?

13. What is in a "gene pool"; how is it related to alleles and populations? How do alleles change?

14. What do all the frequencies of an allele equal?

15. What are all the ways that frequencies of alleles can change? What are the two main sources of genetic variation?

16. What is the genetic outcome of sexual reproduction? What is a change in DNA sequence called?

17. What is the relationship between a trait with two alleles and phenotypes? Define a polygenic trait.

18. According to Darwin, natural selection acts directly on ____.

19. What is a vestigial structure? Name an example.

20. What are the three modes of natural selection (hint: bell curves).

21. Define genetic drift, bottleneck event, and founder's effect.

22. What are the characteristics of genetic equilibrium? What can disturb genetic equilibrium?

23. Describe all the types of isolating mechanisms that drive speciation.

24. Which isolating mechanism generally indicates a new species has formed out of an existing population?

25. What kinds of inferences did Darwin draw from the Galapagos Finches?

26. What is the composition of sedimentary rock? What is an index fossil; how is it useful? How do scientists compare relative ages of fossils?

27. What is the difference between relative and absolute dating of fossils? What is radiodating? what is an index fossil?

28. How do hominids differ from other primates? What are the major characteristics of a biped?

29. What are some major characteristics of Australopitecus afarensis, Homo Habilis, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo (sapiens) neanderthalensis, and Homo (sapiens) sapiens?  (relative dates, key anatomical features, etc.)

30. How did the horse change over time; what key anatomical changes?

31. What is the cost of selective breeding and farmers and ranchers only using a few breeds of an organism for food?

32. Which would result in faster speciation, geographic isolation or living within the same ecosystem? Explain.

33. Compare (similarities and differences) between the anatomical features of a bipedal primate and a non-bipedal primate.

34. List and discuss the major differences between microevolution and macroevolution. 

35. Explain how (one or more mechanisms) and why changes in allele (gene) frequencies are the first step to speciation.

36. Explain the following: 1) genes mutate, 2) individuals are selected, 3) populations evolve.

37. There are many different types of reproductive isolations listed in your readings for this unit. Describe how reproductive isolation can result in speciation.

38. There are 3 types of natural selection, directional, disruptive and stabilized selection, explain how each type could lead to speciation.

39. Using Pangaea drifting apart or the Bubonic Plague as an example: explain using the following concepts, gene pools, genetic drift, bottleneck events, and founder’s effect can lead to changes in populations.  

40. Explain how a paleontologist would be able to tell immediately that they had found an early hominin rather than an extant ape fossil. Use at least 3 anatomical features for your explanation.

41. How did Hutton, Lyell, and Malthus influence Darwin’s understand of what he observed while on his voyage?