Focus Questions for Chapter 13: Genetic Engineering. and Chapter 14-3 Human Molecular Genetics

Chapter 13

1. Why do humans use selective breeding?

2.Why did Luther Burbank use hybridization?

3. Is inbreeding always harmful?

4. How do breeders genetic variation in population? How do scientists produce new kinds of bacteria and plants? Define polyploidy.

5. Define genetic engineering. What are the 3 tools listed on pages 322-323. Define and draw a picture of gel electrophoresis.

6.What is meant by DNA sequencing? How scientists determine the nucleotide sequence (the "clever trick").

7. What does PCR stand for? How does PCR work?

8. Remember the pGlo lab? Describe the process (using Figure 13-9)of taking a human gene and using a bacterial cell to make a gene product (example in the book is human growth hormone).

9. What are the differences between transforming plant and animal cells?

10. How do scientists "knock-out" or eliminate particular genes?

11. What are the 3 types of transgenic organisms? What are the advantages of each type?

12. What is cloning and what are the hopes for this technology, what are the problems?

Chapter 14-3

1. What is the purpose of Human DNA Analysis?

2. Using the examples in the book how do scientists look for alleles?

3. Explain Figure 14-18: DNA fingerprinting; the purpose and process.

4. What is the Human Genome Project (HGP)? How did scientists accomplish this project (explain rapid sequencing)?

5. What do scientist hope to use the HGP for?

6. Explain what gene therapy is and what it can and cannot do at this time.