HAP Chapter 19

The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels

Read the corresponding chapter in the textbook, labs and homework that has been assigned.  Always check the tutorial on the CD rom from the textbook as well as the tutorials and practice quizzes at the companion web site for your textbook.

1.  Describe, diagram and label the three layers that typically form the wall of a blood vessel and state the function of each


2.  Define vasoconstriction and vasodilation.


3.  Describe the structure and function of veins and explain how veins differ from arteries.


4.  Describe the structure and function of a capillary bed.


5.  Define blood flow, blood pressure and resistance, and explain the relationships between these factors.


6. List and explain the factors that influence blood pressure and describe how blood pressure is regulated. 


Complete the chart:  Write an I to indicate an increase in pressure and a D to indicate a decrease in pressure

increased diameter of the arterioles

increased blood viscosity

increased cardiac output

increased pulse rate

anxiety, fear

increased urine output

sudden change in position from reclining to standing

physical exercise

physical training





stimulation of arterial baroreceptors

stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors

release of epinephrine from adrenal medulla

secretion of arterial natriuretic peptide

secretion of antidiuretic hormone

release of endothelin

secretion of NO

renin/angiotensin mechanism

secretion of aldosterone

secretion of PDGF



7.  Define hypertension.  Note both its symptoms and its consequences


8.  Explain how blood flow is regulated in the body in general and in its specific organs.


9.  Define circulatory shock.  Note several possible causes.


10.  What are the names of the pressure points used to stop major bleeding from the following areas of the body:  thigh ___________,  forearm ___________   calf ________________,  thumb ________________  temple ______________


11. Provide examples of changes that often occur in blood vessels as a person ages.


Sample questions

1.    Where would you find the renal vein?

2.   Where would you find the hepatic portal vein?

3.  Where would you find the subclavian artery?

4.  Which statement best describes arteries:  a.  all carry oxygenated blood to the heart  b. all carry blood away from the heart    c. all contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood    d. only large arteries are lined with endothelium

5.  Which of the following is true about veins:  a. venous valves are formed from the tunica media    b. up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time   c. veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall   d. veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs. 

7. T/F  Arteries that provide the major supply of the cerebral hemispheres are the internal carotid arteries.

8.  T/F  Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm/Hg.

9.  The pulse pressure is:  a. systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure   b. systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure    c.  systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure     d. diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure).

Answers:  1. coming from the kidney        2.  leaving the small intestines going to the liver    3.  connecting from the stomach, small intestines and spleen into the liver     4. b     5.  d    6. T    7. T   8. T   9. B

Created by Mrs. C 5/05 edited by Ms. B 4/09