HAP Spring Semester Final Study Guide


*Study guides are intended to aide in preparation for tests. They may not list every item that will be tested on, some items on them may not be tested on, and they are subject to change.


This final will cover all information from 2nd semester. You may have a 3x5 notecard, both sides, handwritten. The final will consist of 170 multiple choice/matching/true or false (the final is worth 10% of your semester grade.

There is a practice test on School loop with pictures and word bands


Matching (Human Diagrams)

All pictures will be from your coloring book or from pictures posted online

List of Powerpoints and Review Sheets:

Neuromuscular Junction PPT

Muscle Dissection Quiz Site for Practice Idenification

Muscle Unit Review Sheet

Sliding Filament PPT

 Intro to Nervous System, Overview, Action Potential (Ch 11) & CNS (Chapter 12)

Cranial Nerves PowerPoint

Reflex PowerPoint

Nerve System Disorders PowerPoint

Heart PowerPoint

Virtual Cat Dissection: Blood Vessels

Heart diagram with answers

Cranial arteries view (cat)

Caudal view circulatory system (cat)


Immune PPT

Blood Worksheet Review

Respiration, Digestive, Urinary Unit Study Guide

Urinary/Excretory System PPT

Urinary Review Sheet

Respiratory/Digestive PPT

Virtual Cat Dissection: Organs of the Thoracic Cavity

Cat Respiratory Pictures

Cat Digestive Pictures

Topics by Unit

The Muscular System (Anatomy)


The Nervous System

Nervous System Basics and Neurophysiology (Ch 11 up to synapse)


Central Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System SEE Guided notes for Ch 13


The Circulatory, Lymphatic and Immune Systems

The Heart

         Coverings: Pericardium, Pericardial cavity

         Layers of Heart wall: Epidcardium, Myocardium, Endocardium

         Chambers and associated great vessels: R and L ventricles, R and  L atria

         Superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary veins, aorta, pulmonary trunk (R and L arteries)

         Pectinate muscles

         Trabeculae carneae

         Papillary muscles

         Chordae tendineae

         Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)

o        Tricuspid and Mitrial (bicuspid)

         Semilunar valves (SL valves)

o        Aortic and Pulmonary

         Microscopic anatomy (striation (dif.s from skeletal), nucleus, mitochondria,  T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum) 

         Know all three circulation loops including the route the blood takes and where it is O2 rich vs O2 poor (see vocab above in heart anatomy)

         pulmonary circulation

         systemic circulation

         coronary circulation

         coronary arteries, capillaries, cardiac veins and coronary sinus

         Mechanism and events of contraction (similarities and differences to skeletal muscle)

         Gap junctions

         Intrinsic conduction system- Autorhythmic cells

o        Sinoatrial node (SA node) (*pacemaker)

o        Atrioventricular node (AV node)

o        Bundle of His (atrioventricular bundle)- R and L branches

o        Purkinje fibers

         Heart sounds

         Mechanical events- systole, diastole, cardiac cycle

         Cardiac output- stoke volume 

         Angina pectoris

         Myocardial infarction (heart attack)

         Atherosclerosis

         Congestive heart failure

         Arrhythmias

         Heart block and “pacemakers”

Blood vessels 

         Arteries, veins and capillaries

         blood vessel walls

o        tunica intima structure/function

o        tunica media structure/function

         vasoconstriction and vasodilation

o        tunica externa structure/function

         elastic/conducting arteries structure/function

         muscular/distributing arteries structure/function

         arterioles structure/function

         capillaries structure/function

         venules structure/function

         veins structure/function

         blood flow

         blood pressure

         resistance (viscosity, blood vessel length, blood vessel diameter)

         RELATIONSHIP between flow, pressure and resistance

         systemic blood pressure

o        arterial blood pressure (ave healthy person, pulse pressure), capillary blood pressure, venous blood pressure



 Lymphatic System

         Lymph

         Lymphatic vessels

         Lymphocytes

         Lymph nodes

         Spleen, thymus gland and tonsils

 Immune System

         Disease

         Pathogen

         Vector

         Leukocytes

         Nonspecific Defense

         Specific Defense

         Acquired immunity

         Allergies

         Autoimmune disease

         AIDS

         Suppressing the immune system

         ELISA assays


The Respiratory and Digestive Systems

Respiratory System

Digestive System