HAP The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Read the corresponding chapter in the textbook, labs and homework that has been assigned.  Always check the tutorial on the CD rom from the textbook as well as the tutorials and practice quizzes at the companion web site for your textbook.

1.  Describe the size and shape of the heart and indicate its location and orientation in the thorax.


2. Name and diagram the coverings of the heart



3.  Describe the structure and function of each of the three layers of the heart wall from the outermost to the inner most.



4.  Describe the structure and functions of the four heart chambers.  Name each chamber and provide the name  and general route of its associated great vessel(s)


5.  Explain why the heart is called a double pump.


Complete the paragraph Trace the pathway of blood through the heart.

From the (a)____ atrium through the tricuspid valve to the (b) _________ through the (c)_______ valve to the pulmonary trunk to the right and left (d)_________ to the capillary beds of the (e) _________ to the (f) ________ to the (g)_________ of the heart through the (h)__________valve to the (i) ___________ through the (j)______semilunar valve to the (k)_________ to the systemic arteries to the (l)____________of the body tissues to the systemic veins to the (m)______________ and (n)_________________ which enter the right atrium of the heart.

6.  Name the major blood supply to the heart's own myocardium.  From what do these vessels branch and to what do they empty upon return from the myocardium.


7. Name the heart valves and describe their location, function, and mechanism of operation.



8.  Describe the structural and functional properties of cardiac muscle tissue and explain how it differs from skeletal muscle tissue. (refer to Ch 4 tissues)  Place an S if the characteristic is related to skeletal muscle tissue and a C if it is related to cardiac muscle tissue

one centrally located nucleus

more mitochondria per cell

T tubules line up at the Z lines

Uses fatty acids more effectively for ATP harvest

Requires stimulation by the nervous system to contract

has a shorter refractory period

contains self-excitable cells

has well-developed terminal cistrnae

wide T tubules

more distinct myofibrils

all-or-none law applies at the organ level

intercalated discs enhance intercellular electrical communication


9.  Name and diagram the components of the conduction system of the heart and trace the conduction pathway.



10.   Describe normal heart sounds and explain how heart murmurs differ from normal heart sounds Complete the paragraph: 

The contraction of the ventricles is referred to as (a) ____________ and the period of ventricular relaxation is called (b) ________   The monosyllables describing heart sounds during the cardiac cycle are (c) _________. The first heart sound is a result of closure of the (d) __________ valves; closure ofthe (e) ________valves causes the second heart sound.  The heart chambers that have just been filled when you hear the first heart sound are the (f) ___________ and the chanbers that have just emptied are the (g) ____________.  Immediately after the second heart sound, the (h) ________________ are filling with blood and the (i) __________________ are empty.  Abnormal heart sounds, or (j) ______ usually indicate valve problems

12.  Describe the timing and events of the cardiac cycle.



13.  Name and explain the effects of the various factors involved in regulation of stroke volume and heart rate.



14.  Provide examples of age-related changes in heart function.



Sample questions: 

1.  If a drop of blood leaves the lungs, where does it immediately go to next?

2.  Which term does not belong in the following group:  Ventricles fill   Ventricular systole   AV valves open    Late diastole

3. Where are the purkinje fibers located?

4.  Where is the pacemaker of the heart located?

5.  T/F  The "lub" sounds of the heart are valuable in diagnosis because they provide information about the function of the heart's semilunar valves

6.  T/F  The mitral valve has chordae tendinae but the tricuspid valve does not. 

7.  Blood is carried to capillaries in the myocardium by way of:  a. the coronary sinus   b. the fossa ovalis   c. coronary arteries   d. coronary veins

8.  Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they:  a.  have gap junctions   b.  have end walls    c. have I and A bands    d. have intercalated disks

9.  The tricuspid valve is closed:  a. while the ventricle is in diastole   b. when the ventricle is in systole    c. while the atrium is contracting    d. by the movement of blood from atrium to ventricle

10.  When holding a dissected heart in your hands, it is easy to orient the right and left side by:  a. tracing out where the vena cava enters the heart   b. noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls   c. locating the aorta   d.  finding the pulmonary semilunar valves

Answers:  1.  r/l pulmonary veins    2. ventricular systole    3.  in the myocardium of the lateral ventricle walls.  4.  in the upper portion of the right atrium near the entrance of the SVC   5.  F   6.  F   7.  c   8. c  9.  b  10.  b

Created by Mrs. C  7/05

Edited by Ms. B 3/10