Accelerated Biology Fall Final Exam: Study Guide. 

Modified on __6/07____

Suggestion:  Copy cut and paste this into a word document, and then make more space to write answers.  Save and answer the questions.  Do it over and over and over.


  1. What is the ultimate source of energy on Earth?
  2. Define:  hypothesis, controlled experiment,  theory, variable, observation.  What makes a hypothesis scientifically valid? Distinguish between hypothesis and theory as scientific terms.
  3. What are the properties of life shared by all living organisms?
  4. Know the general properties of each of the Kingdoms. (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Monera). Example:  Animals have cells w/o cell walls, and no chloroplasts.  They are heterotrophic (can't make their own food) etc...
  5. Know the general properties of the three Domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya). Example Prokaryotes are members of the Domains bacteria and archea.  The Domain Archea is represented by prokaroytes that survive in extreme conditions such as extremely salty waters (Halophiles) etc...
  6. What are the characteristics of chemical reactions? Example they involve the transfer or sharing of electrons and are either endergonic or exergonic etc...
  7. Describe early earth's atmosphere. 
  8. What did Miller and Urey discover?
  9. How could clay have contributed to the origin of life on Earth?
  10. What is the “big bang” theory? When did it occur?
  11. In order for earth's early atmosphere to contain oxygen what primitive organisms evolved?
  12. Place the following organisms in order from earliest to most recent in terms of their appearance on Earth:  photosynthetic organisms, eukaryotic cells, heterotrophic organisms, oxygen tolerant organisms
  13. Explain the difference between prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells and viruses in terms of complexity and general structure.  Which of these organelles are not found in prokaryotic cells: ribosomes, cell wall, pili, membrane-bound nucleus, a capsule?
  14. How do you identify the reactants and products in a chemical reaction?
  15. Why are Miller's early experiments considered so vitally important to understanding evolution of organisms?  Briefly explain his findings.
  16. Define and give an example of:: habituation, imprinted behavior, classical conditioning, innate behavior and imitation.  Example:  An infant sucking on a nipple is an example of what type of behavior?
  17. What is the purpose of a buffer? How does a buffer work?  Give an example of a buffer.
  18. How does pH relate to concentration of H+  ions and OH- ions? 
  19. If a solution is determined to have a pH of 5 and another a pH of 4, which is more basic by how much?
  20. What is the difference between a solute, solvent and solution?
  21. When water changes phase, what happens to the bonds holding one water molecule to another? What accounts for the unique structure and function of water?
  22. Name the three major types of bonds; how is each type of bond formed? List the bonds in order of strength from weakest to strongest.
  23. What is the difference between covalent, ionic, and polar covalent bonds?
  24. How are electrons placed around the nucleus (what pattern)?
  25. How determines the atomic number of an element?
  26. Define matter.
  27. Name the 2 major differences between organic and inorganic matter differ?
  28. What is the purpose of chemical functional groups?  List, diagram 5 functional groups
  29. What is the source of genetic information in all living organisms?
  30. What are the 4 major biological biomolecules/macromolecules? Name the monomers of each type.
  31. What are the four levels of organization in a protein; what are the characteristics of each level and diagram each.
  32. What is the relationship between monomers and polymers?
  33. How many different ways can be used to denature a protein structure?  What happens when a protein is denatured?  Determine three ways one protein differs from another.
  34. What are the major types of lipids? How do you tell the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Which lipid is predominantly found in cell (plasma) membranes?  Diagram and label it's parts.
  35. Diagram a monosaccharide, amino acid and a nucleotide of DNA (label it's parts)
  36. What are the major characteristics of cells? Compare and contrast animal, plant, and prokaryotic cells.
  37. Differentiate between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis chemical reactions.
  38. How do cilia differ from flagella?
  39. Know the various organelles found in eukaryotes, know their structure(s) and function(s).  For example, mitochondria, plasmodesmata, extracellular matrix, endomembrane system, lysosome, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisome, golgi apparatus,  nucleolus, chloroplasts, large central vacuole, etc...
  40. Know all the ways materials (large or small) can gain access to the interior of a cell or leave the interior of a cell. Example ions must find a protein channel w/in the plasma membrane in order to enter or exit the cell  etc...
  41. Define:  facilitated diffusion, net diffusion, osmosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis, active transport, passive transport, endocytosis, exocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis,
  42. How do mitochondria differ from chloroplasts in terms of structure and function?
  43. Which organs play a role in osmoregulation (homeostasis)? How does the organ(s) accomplish osmoregulation (osmotic balance)?
  44. Diagram a nephron unit and label the parts: proximal tubule, loop of Henle, Bowman's capsule, distal tubule, glomerulus
  45. What are the functions of the liver; an accessory organ of the digestive system?
  46. What is the relationship between diffusion and osmosis? How do both processes operate (driving force)? Know the relationship between solute concentration and water concentration. Hint: hypo, hyper, iso, dynamic equilibrium.
  47. What is the “fluid-mosaic” model?
  48. What is an enzyme (parts and function)? How do enzymes lower activation energy?
  49. Know the two laws of thermodynamics. How do these laws relate to life?
  50. Know the three main phases of cellular respiration. Know the reactants and products of each phase. What is the relationship between anaerobic respiration and fermentation? What is facultative aerobe? What is the purpose of oxygen?  The Kreb's cycle uses a lot of enzymes, where are they located?
  51. What is the "bridge" between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
  52. How does chemiosmosis work in both the mitochondria and chloroplast? What is the relationship of and importance of an H+ gradient to Chemiosmosis?  Where does Chemiosmosis occur in both structures?  Diagram and label a mitochondrion and a chloroplast.
  53. What is oxidation and reduction?
  54. Where would you locate ATP synthase and the ETC in a mitochondrion and a chloroplast? 
  55. What is the equation for photosynthesis? Know how the two distinct phase work and where these phases occur. Know the reactants and products.
  56. What is a producer/autotroph?  What category do yeasts fall into?
  57. An organism that can produce ATP by either fermentation or Chemiosmosis is called?
  58. What is the purpose and types of pigments in photosynthesis? In what part of a leaf will you find the chloroplasts?
  59. Write the overall equation for cellular respiration.  Write the overall equation for photosynthesis.
  60. The oxygen that is released into the air as a product of photosynthesis comes from??
  62. What are the advantages/disadvantages of C3, C4, and CAM plants?
  63. What is cell cycle? What are the major parts of cell cycle? What triggers cell division? Why bother with mitosis? What are the major phases within mitosis? What happens during each phase? What are the major differences between plant and animal cells?  In what ways is mitosis important to organisms?
  64. Does the cell cycle have a control system?  Yes or no and explain.
  65. What is a virus? Is a virus considered alive?  How do viruses compare to bacteria in terms of structure and function?
  66. When does DNA replication occur? What are the major steps of DNA replication?  How does the leading and lagging strand replication differ?
  67. What is the path of food through the human digestive system; name each organ that food would pass through in order? What happens to food and where?
  68. What enzymes digest proteins?  What enzymes digest starches?  What enzymes digest lipids & how does bile help this process even though it is not an enzyme?
  69. What is a muscle fiber's (cell's) fundamental unit of contraction; diagram and label one of these? What are the thick filaments and thin filaments named?  What is the role of calcium in muscle contraction?
  70. What are the functional units of a muscle? How do these “parts” work to contract muscles?
  71. What is the major causative agent of stomach ulcers? How does “it” work?
  72. What is the path of blood through the body? Name the major parts of the heart, and the major blood vessels.
  73. What happens during diastole and systole? What is the role of the pacemaker?
  74. What did Koch and Pasteur contribute to science?
  75. What is the name given to a substance that can trigger an immune response?
  76. Who are the major players in the non-specific immune (1st line) response?
  77. What is the relationship between the lymphatic, circulatory, and immune systems?
  78. Who are the major players (cells and chemokines (chemicals) of the immune systems (both humoral and cell-mediated)? How do all these players interact to protect you from invasion?
  79. Define: complement    interferon    histamine    antibody    antigen    MHC     cytotoxic T cells,   natural Killer cells    helper T cells    plasma cells    memory cells
  80.  Describe the “Central Dogma” in relation to the flow of genetic information. 

    81. How are retroviruses able to “defy” the Central Dogma *hint: check this link or pg 205

    82. Define Transcription, where, when,  & why does it occur, which enzyme is working during the process: 

    83. Define Translation, where, when, & why does it occur, which enzyme is working during the process: 

    84. To which (transcription or translation or both) do the words “initiation, elongation, termination belong.  Define each of these words:




    Transcription factor


    85. Describe why post transcriptional processing of mRNA is necessary.

    86. What happens during post transcriptional processing of mRNA?

    87. Define:





    Poly A tail

    GTP cap 9 (5' guanine cap)


    88.. Diagram and label a ribosome including the A site, P site, and E site.  What is the most important event that occurs at EACH site?

    89. The ribosome does not exist in the cytoplasm as two subunits.  When and how does it become two combined subunits?



    There will be 4 essay questions on the final exam will choose only 2 of the 4 AND THE ESSAYS WILL ONLY BE READ IF YOUR SEMESTER GRADE IS WITHIN 0.5% OF THE NEXT HIGHER GRADE.