ECA: Ecology: (ecosystems, symbiotic relationships, behavior)

Directions: Work in your lab groups to answer the following questions, make sure each member of the group understands all the concepts. Any figures that are mentioned are found in the 8th Edition.

  1. What is an emergent property?
  2. Why would evolution ( natural selection) support mutualism and parasitism (two seemingly opposite life strategies)? Why are the advantages and disadvantages of the following relationships +/+, +/-, +/0?
  3. Contrast the 3 different types of survivorship curves. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each? How are these curves related to semelparity and iteroparity? Why is “big bang” an appropriate definition for either semelparity or iteroparity?
  4. There is a relationship between climate (precipitation and temperature) and terrestrial biomes, explain using examples.
  5. Explain the difference between J and S curves and relate to R and K strategists and semelparity and iteroparity.
  6. What is the big deal about K (carrying capacity)?
  7. What is the difference between the Logistic Growth Model and  Exponential Growth Model
  8. In 2006, the United States has a population of about 300 million people. If there were 14 births and 8 deaths per 1000 people, what as the country's net population growth that year (ignoring immigration and emigration, which are substantial)? Do you think the US is currently experiencing exponential population growth? Explain. (the equations are located in Ch. 53.3)
  9. Check out figure 53.20, explain the population cycles of the snowshoe hare and the lynx.
  10. Rank the types of behavior from innate to learning. Why is learning (any type) an example of an emergent property?
  11. There are at least 8 different ways of camouflage (concealing coloration, disguise, disruptive coloration, aposematic coloration, mimicry, deflection, countershading, masking) give an example of each in nature, name some ways that  humans utilize camouflage, see if you can find applications for each of the natural versions (art, architecture, clothing, etc.)

Essential Questions:  (Make sure you can answer the following general questions).

How do organisms interact within their environment?

How does energy flow through an ecosystem?

How is a community created?

How do the environments of organisms differ?

What factors affect the size of a population?