AP Biology Spring Final Study Guide

FRQ: one frq will be on body systems, the other will be a surprise

Key terms/ and topics to know:

Know how to read a graph and extract data, identify controls, variables, design experiments

Hierarchy of life

Function groups in organic molecues (examples: acetone, dopamine, formaldehyde, ethanol)

Structure and function of organelles  (ex. Nucleolus – ribosome synthesis, etc); photosynthesis (C3, C4, CAM), cellular respiration, fermentation; membranes (osmosis through membranes, what happens to cells in various types of solutions).

Structure and functions of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)

Alleles, loci, somatic, haploid, diploid

Products of smooth and rough ER

Structural differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Roles (niches) of prokaryotes

Loss of gene function, enzymes, diseases

Types of behaviors/learning (ex. Instinct, innate, habituation, imprinting, trial/error learning)

Enzymes, allosteric, competitive inhibition, active sites

Genetics: determining genotypes of gametes from parental genotypes, Reading pedigrees (4 types of inheritance: autosomal dominant/recessive, Sex or X-linked dominant/recessive

DNA replication, cell cycle, relative amount of DNA during cycle, semi-conservative replication, enzymes, types of DNA in prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes

DNA central dogma/ protein synthesis: transcription and translation

DNA technology: PCR, electrophoresis, restriction digestion,

Ecology: Trophic levels (producers –chemoautotroph/ photoautotrophs; consumers- heterotrophs, decomposers) various biomes (aquatic, land), top carnivores, keystone species,  food webs, succession types and consequences (primary vs. secondary); population growth rates, K & R strategies, carrying capacity

Evolution: allele frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg,  selective advantage, adaptations, adaptive radiation, divergent vs convergent evolution, homology vs. analogy, punctuated vs. gradual equilibrium; types of evidence (comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, comparative DNA sequences, fossils…);

Types of natural selection: directional, stabilizing, disruptive, sexual

Cladograms; read charts of characteristics

Animal Kingdoms; one way vs two way digestion, embryo development

Animal Body systems: immune  (specific and non-specific cells); gas exchange, matching organs to functions, nervous system, neuron structure/function; excretion, kidney, nephrons, nephridia, endocrine action feedback (example thyroxin); response to stress/ fight or flight, blood flow through heart,


Plant Kingdoms: gametophyte, sporophyte, evolution, adaptations to life on land, matching chemicals/hormones to structure or function (examples, phytochrome, chlorophyll, ethylene, auxin, abscisic acid); cells/tissues (phloem, xylem, companion cells, palisade mesophyll, sieve plates); ions used to open stomata (guard cell changes); life cycle of angiosperm; Structures and functions of seeds (ex. Seed coat, cotyledon, radicle, plumule, embryo)