Chapter 11 Focus Q's: scroll down for the other chapter sections
1. In your body (somatic) cells, for any given gene, how many genes have you inherited and who have they come from?
2. In your gametes (sex cells), for any given gene, how many genes will you pass on to your child?
3. What are homologous chromosomes? How are they like a matching pair of socks? Explain.
4. If an animal has a total of 10 chromosomes in each somatic cell, how many homologous pairs are in each somatic cell?
5. Look at Figure 11-14. There are 8 chromosomes (4 pairs of homologous chromosomes...how do you know this?). This cell would be a diploid cell. What would be the colors of chromosomes in one "set"? How do you know?
6. For Figure 11-4, what would a gamete look like (explain in terms of color of chromosomes); draw it using the correct colors.
7. What happens to the number of chromosomes in each cell during meiosis? How is this accomplished? What is this type of cell called: haploid or diploid? Why?
8. What is a tetrad? Draw it.
9. What is crossing over? Draw homologous chromosomes before and after crossing over. You will need to color the chromosomes two different colors.
10. Complete the following chart on the stages of meiosis:
|Stage||Drawing||Main events: explain what is happening regarding the nuclear membrane, spindles and chromosomes|
11. Regarding chromosomes, what is the main function of Meiosis 1?
12. Regarding chromosomes, what is the main function of Meiosis 2?
13. How does gamete formation differ between sperm and egg production?
14. How are mitosis and meiosis the same?
15. How are mitosis and meiosis different?
Chpt 11.1 and 11.2 Focus Q's
1. What types of organisms inherit characteristics from their parent(s)?
2. What is genetics?
3. Who is Gregor Mendel? What was his contribution to science?
4. What is pollen?
5. What does self pollination mean?
6. What are plants that self pollinate called? What would their offspring look like?
7. What did Mendel want to do?
8. How did he prevent self pollination?
9. What does cross pollination mean? How was this useful to Mendel?
10. What is a trait?
11. What were the traits like in the pea plants that Mendel crossed?
12. What did Mendel call the original pair of plants? What did he call the offspring?
13. Why did he call the offspring hybrids (what does this mean?)?
14. When Mendel crossed two different P plants, what did the F1 look like? Was it a blend of the parents? Did they all look like one parent? Did some look like one parent and the others look like the other parent?
15. Based on his experiments, what was Mendel's first conclusion?
16. What is a gene?
17. What are the different forms a gene called?
18. What was Mendel's second conclusion? What does this mean?
19. How can an organism exhibit a recessive trait?
20. The allele for short height is recessive. Look at Figure 11-4 and explain what is happening to the short allele in both the F1 and F2 generations.
21. When do alleles segregate from each other?
22. Read about "Explaining the F1 cross" and look at Figure 11-5. Keeping in mind that tall height (T) is dominant to short height (t), rewrite/redraw Figure 11-5 using words instead of letters. For example, Tt has the dominant allele so this would be tall.
23. In Figure 11-5, each letter represents a gene. Why is there only one letter in each of the gametes?
24 Define probability, use an example. How is probability used in genetics?
25. What is the purpose of a Punnett Square?
26. Define the difference (and use an example) of homozygous alleles and heterozygous alleles.
27 What is a phenotype, a genotype? Use examples.
1. What is one question Mendel had about alleles segregating into gametes?
2. What experiment did Mendel do that answered this question?
3. How did Mendel show that yellow and round peas were the dominant traits?
4. What are the genotypes for the F2 generation for a two factor cross? How would that genotype be described?
5. Describe all the phenotypes of the offspring in regards to pea color (yellow or green) and pea texture (smooth or wrinkled). Where there some that weren't like the parents (the F1 parents)?
6. Look at Figure 11-10. Count the number of peas for each phenotype: yellow/smooth; yellow/wrinkled; green/smooth; green/wrinkled.
6a. One genotype for a yellow/smooth pea is RRYy. How would you describe this (you need to describe both)?
7. What showed that the alleles for pea color and texture sort segregate independently of each other?
8. So, define the principle of independent assortment.
9. Give an example of incomplete dominance.
10. Give an example of codominance.
11. What is meant by multiple alleles?
12. What are polygenic traits? What is one example?
13. What else affects the phenotype of an organism besides genes?
1. What does it mean to say that genes are linked together? Are they found on the same chromosomes or different?
2. How did Mendel miss gene linkage?
3. Explain how crossing over effects gene linkage?
4. What is a gene map?
5. Explain how crossing over/recombination frequency data can be used to make a gene map.
6. If two genes are on the same chromosome but are usually inherited independently of each other, what does this tell you about their relative locations on the chromosome?