Biology Fall Final Semester Review Information: (Items in red are NOT on this year's fall final exam)


Chapters include: Chapter 1,2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, parts of 13,18, 19, 35.1 ,37,39 (see the calendar)

1.  Look through your logbook.

2. Go over your reading notes notes.

3. Review the labs

4. Re-read the chapter summaries, re-read the captions on figures in the chapters.

5. Prepare a handwritten 3 x 5 inch card, both sides, with the most important information, or information you have trouble memorizing.

There will be up to 100 questions and one essay. Remember the essay will only be read if your semester grade is on the borderline within 0.5% of the next higher letter grade.


Subjects on the Final: (Disclaimer this list is only intended to be a general list of subjects)

hypothesis, data, variables, inferences, conclusions, experiment, controlled experiment, theory

units of measure (meters, liters, grams... know how to convert; example 10 mm = ___ m)

organization of life on earth (organism, population, community, ecosystem)

atomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons, atomic number, mass number, isotopes),

pH (relationship to H ions, examples of pH of water, acids, bases),

ions, types of chemical bonds (ionic, covalent, hydrogen), parts of a chemical reaction,

water (structure, function, density in various phases and polarity)

origin of life (Miller experiment),

biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nuclei acids- types of monomers, structures and functions),

enzymes (structure (active site), function, activation energy, endergonic, exergonic, catalyst (speed of reaction, denaturation)

diffusion, osmosis, active and passive transport, facilitated diffusion, laws of thermodynamics

cells (prokaryotic/eukaryotic), organelles of eukaryotic cells (nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, plasma membrane, cell wall, lysosomes, cytoskeleton, etc, etc,etc,etc.) , viruses (alive or dead) 

ATP (functions), heterotrophs & autotrophs,

cellular respiration (structures, processes (glycolysis, Krebs, ETS), enzymes, equations, ATP synthase), fermentation, NAD, FAD

photosynthesis (equation, enzymes, light dependent, light independent (Calvin cycle), structures in the chloroplasts), relationship between chloroplasts and mitochondria,  NADPH

mitosis (cell cycle, cell death, HOX genes, p53),

DNA structure and  replication, genes, transformation (pGlo, operons),

Central Dogma (transcription and translation- codons, anticodons, mRNA processing,  protein synthesis), mutations (types),  differences between DNA and RNA, types of RNA

organization levels in an organism (cell, tissue, ...), hormones (glands), homeostasis (negative feedback), circulatory system (parts, flow of blood)

 neurons, nervous systems, 35.2-35.5