Biology Unit: Biomolecules, Energy, & Enzymes  Review Information (Chapter 2.3 -2.4 see calendar):

Any information from the first day of school until the Unit Test may appear on the test. Please understand that this is a guide there are no guarantees that all of the material listed here and presented in class will appear exactly the same on the test. You must be able to read questions and understand the context of the material.


Do your own work on the study guide…this is not the time to share the work…you can get together in study groups…AFTER you’ve each tried ALL of the study guide sections.  (Study guides are posted online)

 Key Terms & Key Concepts:

Observations and inferences,

All the variables (IV,DV, SV)

Hypothesis and theory

Controls in an experiment

Bonding types (ionic, covalent, hydrogen); bonds are a source of energy

Valence electrons

Water (polar covalent, hydrogen bonding, cohesion, adhesion, surface tension)

Biomolecules (all types and structures and functions)

Chemical reactions (products, reactants)

Energy diagrams



Types of energy (heat, chemical, kinetic/mechanical, light, etc)

Enzymes (substrates, activation energy, active/binding sites, lock and key hypothesis)

UnitQuestions to consider:

 Why do enzymes work best in a narrow range of temperatures?

     1.   In a covalent bond, two atoms share electrons.  This type of bonding



     2.   Which statement is true?


Simple sugars are made of polysaccharides.


Glycerol is made of fatty acids.


RNA molecules are made of nucleotides.


Amino acids are made of proteins.



     3.   If an exergonic reaction  releases energy, then an energonic reaction ______ energy?



     4.   Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the rate of _____?




     5.   Water molecules are polar because…



     6.   What are some of the functions of proteins?



     7.   What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a chemical reaction started?



     8.   A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction is called a(an) _____?





     9.   What type of energy is captured by plants and stored in glucose?






   11.   Describe the effect of temperature on enzyme activity?



   12.   Hypotheses may arise from…




   14.   A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations is a(an) _____?



   15.   The space surrounding the nucleus of an atom contains?







   17.   What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons?






   19.   What are the names of the monomers of a carbohydrate, protein, and a nucleic acid?



   20.   In chemical reactions, what happens to the order of atoms?






Match the following:




1st law of thermodynamics




2nd law of thermodynamics


A catalyst




Basic lipid


A nucleotide


An amino acid





   24.   Energy is neither created or destroyed just transformed


   25.   An enzyme is also known as a bjiological


   26.   A substrate is also a _____________ in a chemical reaction.


   27.   This molecule is a monomer of a carbohydrate


   28.   Biuret’s is used to detect


   29.   Glycerol and up to 3 fatty acids make up a


   30.   This molecule is a polymer


   31.   All exergonic reactions cause an increase in the entropy of the universe.


   32.   A carboxylic acid (carboxyl group) and an amine or amino group is found on


   33.   This molecule contains a pentose, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base





enzyme graph


Figure 2–3


   34.   A According to Figure 2–3, which enzyme would you expect to find in a bacterium growing in a hot spring?


   35.    According to Figure 2–3, which enzyme has an optimum temperature of 40°C?


   36.   Based on Figure 2–3, which enzyme is active over the largest temperature range?



   38.   Explain what data or evidence supports the observation that bean juice is an enzyme.