Study Guide Evolution Unit 6 Test (Chapters 13-15, 19) updated

 

1.      What were Darwin’s 4 main ideas about species and speciation?  Example: He believed that species change over time. What statements might he disagree with?

2.      What is the best explanation of the concept of natural selection?

3.      What assumptions of Lamarck would Darwin disagree with?

4.      How are fossils formed? What would prevent a fossil from forming?

5.      Understand the use of embryology (study of embryo formation), homology (homologous structures) vs. vestigial structures, biogeography in establishing evolutionary relationships.

6.      What are the mechanisms that lead to microevolution?

7.      What is the ultimate source of all new alleles?



  The Hardy-Weinberg equation is used to help predict the allele or genotypic frequency in future generations and to determine if a population is evolving. Know that q = the recessive allele, p = the dominant allele, p2 = the homozygous dominant genotype, q2 = the homozygous recessive genotype, pq = the heterozygous genotype, 2pq = both forms of the heterozygous genotype (Bb and bB). 

8.  What are the conditions that need to be met for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium? What can cause p or q to change over time?

9.   Define and give an example of genetic drift

10.   Define and give an example of bottle neck

11. What would be the best description of natural selection?

12.   Define and give an example of gene flow

13.   Define and give an example of founder effect

14.  Define and give an example of reproductive isolation or barrier

15.   What is speciation? How would you know when speciation is complete?

For the following also identify which are “pre-zygotic” and which are “post-zygotic” barriers to speciation.

 Define and give an example of neutral variation/selection

 Define and give an example of temporal isolation

 Define and give an example of habitat isolation

Define and give an example of behavioral isolation

Define and give an example of mechanical isolation

 Define and give an example of gametic isolation

Define and give an example of hybrid inviability

Define and give an example of hybrid sterility

Define and give an example of hybrid breakdown



17. Define and give an example of sympatric speciation

18. Define and give an example of allopatric speciation

19. Define and give an example of adaptive radiation

20. What is the difference between the gradual model of evolution and punctuated equilibrium model of speciation

21.  What is the purpose and procedure of radiometric dating?  How old are remains that can be dated using 14C:12C ratio?  How old are remains that can be dated using Potassium-40?

22.  Define and give an example of macroevolution

23. What is the difference between hominoids and anthropoids? Examples of each.

24. Which are our closest hominoid relatives?

25. What is our first "most distinctive" hominid trait?

26. On which continent did Homo arise?

27. What are the most distinctive/different traits found on A. afarensis, H. erectus, H. neandertalensis, and H. sapiens?