Study Guide Evolution Unit 6 Test (Chapters 13-15, 19) updated

 

1.      What were Darwin’s 4 main ideas about species and speciation?  Example: He believed that species change over time

2.      Darwin and Lamarck differed drastically in terms of how species evolve.  What is the primary difference between the two?

3.      What is involved in the formation of a fossil?  For instance, whole organisms be preserved in ice and be called a fossil.  What else constitutes a fossil?

4.      Speaking of fossils, what evidence about the earliest of life forms is given by the fossil record?  What is the oldest of life forms according to the fossil record?

5.      Other than fossils what else can be used to provide evidence that current species have evolved from previous species?

6.      What is a molecular clock?  How is it used?

7.      Differentiate between homologous and analogous structures.  Give an example.

8.      Agree or disagree with each of these statements:  a) natural selection relies upon a specific time and place   b) natural selection is an editing process    c) natural selection can lead to evolutionary change over a short period of time    d) natural selection is a process in place today

11.  Define and give an example of mutation

12.  Define and give an example of diversifying selection

13.  Define and give an example of directional selection

14.  Define and give an example of stabilizing selection

15.  Define and give an example of biological species

16.  The Hardy-Weinberg equation is used to help predict the allele or genotypic frequency in future generations and to determine if a population is evolving.  Be able to use the equation to do this.  Know that q = the recessive allele, p = the dominant allele, p2 = the homozygous dominant genotype, q2 = the homozygous recessive genotype, pq = the heterozygous genotype, 2pq = both forms of the heterozygous genotype (Bb and bB). 

17.  What are the conditions that need to be met for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?

18.   Define and give an example of genetic drift

19.   Define and give an example of bottle neck

20.  Define and give an example of polymorphism

21.   Define and give an example of gene flow

22.   Define and give an example of founder effect

23.  Define and give an example of reproductive isolation

24.   Define and give an example of heterozygote advantage

25.   Define and give an example of neutral variation/selection

26.   Define and give an example of temporal isolation

27.   Define and give an example of habitat isolation

28.   Define and give an example of behavioral isolation

29.   Define and give an example of mechanical isolation

30.   Define and give an example of gametic isolation

31.   Define and give an example of hybrid inviability

32.   Define and give an example of hybrid sterility

33.   Define and give an example of hybrid breakdown

34.   What is a pheromone?  Give an example of how it may alter behavior of organisms.

35.   Define and give an example of postzygotic barrier

36.   Define and give an example of prezygotic barrier

37.   Define and give an example of sympatric speciation

38.   Define and give an example of allopatric speciation

39.   Define and give an example of adaptive radiation

40.   Define and give an example of punctuated equilibrium model of speciation

42.  What is the purpose and procedure of radioimetric dating?  How old are remains that can be dated using 14C:12C ratio?  How old are remains that can be dated using Potassium-40?

43.  The continents and the seafloors of the earth together form the area known as the __________

44.  Define and give an example of continental drift

45.  Define and give an example of exaptation

46.  Define and give an example of parallel evolution

47.  Define and give an example of coevolution

48.  Define and give an example of paedomorphosis

49.  Differentiate between phylogenetic trees and a cladogram.

50.  What are the taxonomical categories in order from last inclusive to most inclusive?

51.  When writing the scientific name of a species of organism what should it look like.  For instance if you were writing the name of today’s modern dog?

52.  Define and give an example of microevolution

53.  Define and give an example of macroevolution

58. What is the difference between hominoids and anthropoids? Examples of each.

59. Which are our closest hominoid relatives?

60. How old are the Laetoli footprints?

61. What is our first "most distinctive" hominid trait?

62. On which continent did Homo arise?

63. When did modern humans diversify, based on the Y chromosomal DNA data?

64. What are the most distinctive/different traits found on A. afarensis, H. erectus, H. neandertalensis, and H. sapiens?