Symbiosis and Co-evolution examples  (from Virginia Malone)

Acremonium zeae is a type of fungus that lives inside corn kernels. The Agricultural Research Service had an article that indicated the fungus helps to protect the corn from invasions of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides both of which produce toxins ruining crops.  Beware older articles indicate that A.zeae is a commensal organisms since there was no previous evidence to show that it either benefited or harmed the corn. 

 

And a different way of looking at symbiosis


Nutritional Symbiosis:
  Termite fungus gardens
  Cockroach endosymbionts

  Medicinal leach and Aeromonas veronii

  Termite and Trichonympha

  Aphid (carbohydrate rich amino acid poor died) and intracellular Buchnera aphidicola provides amino acids  

  Tridacna clams and algae that live in the mantle
Shelter Symbiosis:
  Ant mimics (inquilines)
  Slavemaker ants
  Gall insects
Transport Symbiosis:
  Torsalo (Human bot flies):
  Scelionid wasps

  Nut bearing trees and squirrels


Pollination Symbiosis: 

  Fig wasps

  Nectar guides
  Yucca moths
  Bumblebees and scotch broom
  Fig wasps
  Pseudocopulation in orchids


Defensive Symbiosis

  Ants and acacias
  Aphid farmers

  Bobtailed squid and Vibrio fischeri, luminescent bacteria

 

A bit off beat but check out the Parsee religion ties to Griffon vulture. 


From Susan Van Kleef  the emerald green sea slug, is more evidence for endosymbiosis
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/loom/2008/11/14/going-green/
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/loom/2008/11/18/the-further-adventures-of-the-emerald-green-sea-slug/

From Thomas Wanamaker:

e coolest example involves the leafcutter ant, the fungus it cultivates, the parasitic fungus that attacks the garden fungus, and the symbiotic bacteria that live in the ants and help them suppress the parasitic fungus.  An abstract from the web page http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/Ecology/fungus.htm is below.

The well-studied, ancient and highly evolved mutualism between fungus-growing ants and their fungi has become a model system in the study of symbiosis1-5. Although it is thought at present to involve only two symbionts, associated with each other in near isolation from other organisms1-5, the fungal gardens of attine ants are in fact host to a specialized and virulent parasitic fungus of the genus Escovopsis (Ascomycotina)6. Because the ants and their fungi are mutually dependent, the maintenance of stable fungal monocultures in the presence of weeds or parasites is critical to the survival of both organisms. Here we describe a new, third mutualist in this symbiosis, a filamentous bacterium (actinomycete) of the genus Streptomyces that produces antibiotics specifically targeted to suppress the growth of the specialized garden-parasite Escovopsis. This third mutualist is associated with all species of fungus-growing ants studied, is carried upon regions of the ants' cuticle that are genus specific, is transmitted vertically (from parent to offspring colonies), and has the capacity to promote the growth of the fungal mutualist, indicating that the association of Streptomyces with attine ants is both highly evolved and of ancient origin.